Investigative Report Finds Petro Not Backed by Oil, It's ...

Why Everyone In Crypto Is Talking About DeFi?

A new movement is pumping oxygen into the cryptocurrency industry despite asset prices that remain 75% lower than where they were in late 2017.
It’s called DeFi, short for decentralized finance—it’s the notion that crypto entrepreneurs can recreate traditional financial instruments in a decentralized architecture, outside of companies’ and governments’ control.
And with fresh allegations of misused funds against the centrally controlled cryptocurrency tether, the argument for decentralized applications has become even more relevant.
Bitcoin and Ethereum are the original DeFi applications. Both are controlled by large networks of computers, not central authorities.
Many investors use bitcoin like gold, as a store-of-value investment that protects against inflation, while Ethereum has been instrumental—and controversial—in helping startups crowdfund their operations.
But newer apps are dominating the DeFi conversation. The “stablecoin” Dai is a bitcoin-like digital token that aims to be a global currency untouchable by central banks. Unlike bitcoin, its value is pegged to the U.S. dollar, drastically reducing the volatility that prevents bitcoin from being practical for everyday purchases. Compound is a crypto version of a money market fund, letting users earn interest. Dharma lets you issue and underwrite debt to gain investment returns.
“The goal of DeFi is to reconstruct the banking system for the whole world in this open, permissionless way,” says Alex Pack, managing partner at Dragonfly Capital, a $100 million crypto fund. “You only get that shot every 50 years.”
Salil Deshpande, a partner at Bain Capital Ventures who leads the firm’s crypto investments, thinks people first became interested in DeFi because “they have a libertarian streak.” They like that they can build censorship-resistant products, and some developers are simply fascinated with the technology and its capabilities.
The most powerful effects of DeFi applications, Deshpande says, will take shape over the long term. He points to Venezuela, where a steep drop in oil prices and poor government policies like printing vast amounts of money have crushed the economy, with inflation exceeding 1,000,000% last year, according to the IMF. “Central banks are just people, and people make mistakes,” Deshpande wrote in a 2018 blog post. Decentralized financial applications “can make our financial systems more transparent, more resilient and less fragile,” he says.
Jill Carlson, a former Goldman Sachs trader and strategy lead at blockchain company Chain, has been researching how Venezuelans are using digital assets to combat hyperinflation as part of a nonprofit she cofounded, the Open Money Initiative. “Crypto is not saving Venezuela,” she says. But bitcoin is being used by small numbers of people as a tool to protect against inflation and to send money to family members in other countries.
Dai, the most widely used DeFi application not counting Bitcoin and Ethereum, has spiked in popularity over the past six months, although adoption remains very low. About 21,000 people currently hold the asset, and in early April, it hit a peak number of daily transactions at 13,490. That’s up from less than 500 average daily transactions in the first few months after it launched in late 2017.
The software behind Dai is technologically complex and consists of over 1,000 lines of code, “which is a lot for crypto,” Dragonfly Capital’s Alex Pack says. It lays out rules for how new Dai are minted and how the system is maintained. For example, to create $100 worth of new Dai, users must pledge $150 of ether. They must also pay an interest rate or “stability fee,” because they’re borrowing Dai when they create it. Dai has a sister currency called MKR, and people who hold MKR vote to determine Dai’s interest rate.
Two percent of all ether, or about $339 million worth of ether, is locked up in Dai. Compound has about $34 million in locked ether, while Dharma has roughly $10 million.
The stablecoin tether has much more usage and adoption—it surpassed 44,000 transactions on April 4, according to Coin Metrics. But it’s not decentralized, since it’s managed by iFinex, a widely scrutinized Hong Kong company recently accused of moving money from its tether stablecoin reserves to cover up for $850 million in missing funds on its Bitfinex exchange. Such incidents make the case for a decentralized currency even more compelling.
Despite the potential for noble use cases of Dai, like helping residents of troubled countries, people are primarily using it to make bigger, leveraged bets on Ethereum. Investors can pledge ether to borrow Dai, and then use that Dai to buy more ether. A second use case: Traders who want to exit out of a volatile cryptocurrency can swap it for Dai instead of a fiat currency. Dai is also being used as money by “financially underserved communities, such as many people in South America,” says Rune Christensen, CEO of the Maker Foundation, the nonprofit that built Dai’s software.
What are the biggest risks of DeFi applications? “The smart contracts could be hacked,” Pack says. “There could be a backdoor that allows someone to steal all of your keys. But you’re trusting in open-source code—over time, many eyes are looking at it.” Christensen notes that Dai’s software has been audited four times by well-respected security research firms like Trail of Bits.
While the DeFi movement has many fans, some traders don’t think it will move the needle on cryptocurrency adoption. “Technologically, I think it’s brilliant,” says Jeff Dorman, chief investment officer at digital asset management firm Arca. But he sees more promise in a stablecoin created by a large company with many users, pointing to recent reports that Facebook is working on one. “Ultimately, distribution wins out,” he says.
Dorman doesn’t mind that Facebook’s coin would be centralized. “That’s why so many passionate libertarians and government anarchists are in crypto,” he says. “They see this utopian future that we one day might get to, but we’re not getting there overnight. So let’s walk before we run.”
submitted by jakkkmotivator to Latest_Defi_News [link] [comments]

What are Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies Backed By?

Bitcoin was created back in 2009 and became the first cryptocurrency ever designed. Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular in the last few years as they offer an efficient and decentralized way of transferring money.
Cryptocurrencies have always been an alternative to banks and fiat money. But why do they have any value at all and who dictates what they are worth? The value of Bitcoin is really calculated through supply and demand. The digital asset itself is backed by nothing more than perhaps the blockchain ledger.
Every single cryptocurrency uses a blockchain ledger, a system that records transactions between two or more parties in a verifiable and permanent way. This certainly adds value to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. However, it is not what determines their price.
Why Things Have Value
Why does anything have any value at all? It has mostly because of supply and demand. Traditional currencies, for instance, are only backed by the government that issued them. Digital money, like Bitcoin, is not backed or linked to any physical reserves like gold and can certainly lose value due to different factors.
Cryptocurrencies have value because they require ‘work’ to exist. Cryptocurrencies are maintained thanks to the mining process, a process in which transactions are verified by different people. This process requires a certain amount of work, electricity, and money.
Key Factors That Affect The Value of Cryptocurrencies
Since most cryptocurrencies are not physically backed by anything, their value is determined through supply and demand based on a few important factors. One of the biggest advantages of cryptocurrencies is scarcity. The supply of most cryptocurrencies is fixed, and, unlike traditional currencies, no one can issue more than the maximum limit. This means that cryptocurrencies are deflationary by nature.
Another key factor that benefits cryptocurrencies is divisibility. Any cryptocurrency can be divided into smaller units. A simple change in Bitcoin’s code could allow the digital asset to be divided into infinitely smaller units at any time.
Additionally, transferring cryptocurrencies can be extremely fast and cheap compared to traditional methods. Fees are somewhat fixed no matter the amount you send, which means that theoretically you could send 1 million Bitcoins to someone and pay only a few dollars in fees (or even less).
In a way, one could say that Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are backed by the public’s faith in them as they have realized that the current monetary system is not as robust as one might think.
Why Are Cryptocurrencies so Volatile Then?
In comparison to traditional currencies and even stocks, cryptocurrencies are far more volatile, meaning that the current price of any given crypto can change drastically in hours. It’s quite common to see Bitcoin’s price go up or down 5-10% within a few days. In fact, even in periods of low volatility, most cryptocurrencies still experience price moves of up to 1-2%, which is considered extremely high in traditional markets.
The explanation, however, is quite simple. Cryptocurrencies, in general, lack the liquidity that the rest of the markets enjoy. According to statistics from Statista, the average daily turnover in the global foreign exchange market was around $6.5 trillion daily. The cryptocurrency market, on average, sees around $80 billion in daily trading volume, and according to various sources, a lot of the volume is actually fake.
The problem with illiquidity is that someone who wants to sell or buy a huge amount of Bitcoin or any cryptocurrency will simply ‘eat’ all the orders in the order book of the exchange, catapulting the price up or crashing it. That is the only reason why cryptocurrencies, in general, are extremely volatile.
Some Cryptocurrencies Are Actually Backed by Things
There are, however, some cryptocurrencies that are backed by gold, assets, and even fiat money. Tether (USDT) became the most popular cryptocurrency backed by fiat, later known as a ‘stablecoin’.
Stablecoins
A stablecoin is designed to always be worth $1.00 by maintaining 1 dollar in some sort of reserve. The first stablecoin to become widely popular was Tether, however, there was a lot of controversy surrounding it. Most of the criticism came from the fact that Tether Limited was unable to prove they actually have the funds to cover all the Tether issued.
Additionally, on 30 April 2019, Tether Limited’s lawyer actually admitted that each coin is only backed by $0.74 in cash.
Currently, there are over a dozen stablecoins that are backed by fiat, commodities, and even cryptocurrencies. TrueUSD is similar to Tether but it is considered to be one of the most reliable stablecoins currently as the company behind it has been extremely transparent and conducted an independent audit back in March 2019.
A more complex stablecoin is Dai, which is backed by Ethereum and pegged to the dollar. The system behind Dai basically locks Ethereum in a public contract. If the value of Dai distances too far from $1, the system will make use of the contract to stabilize it back. There is, however, a small problem: Dai is not entirely decentralized as the technology behind it is being monitored by the Maker Foundation.
DigixDAO is another stablecoin and it’s backed by bars of actual gold. It is an ERC-20 token created back in 2014. The digital asset is entirely decentralized and autonomous and can in fact be extended to be backed by other precious metals and even physical assets. According to the company, the gold is stored in custodial vaults at the Singapore Safe House, and 1 DGX will always equal 1 gram of gold.
Cryptocurrencies Backed by Assets
Not all cryptocurrencies backed by assets are stablecoins. For instance, the first oil-backed cryptocurrency was introduced by Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro back in 2017. El Petro, although highly criticized, is supposedly the first cryptocurrency to be backed by oil thanks to the country’s huge oil and mineral reserves.
Petro is, however, not pegged to anything, and its value can increase or decrease at any given time.
Tokenization of Assets
Something that has become quite popular over the last few years is the tokenization of traditional stocks and assets. There are countless blockchain startups tokenizing almost anything to represent ownership.
The tokenization of assets brings numerous benefits like greater liquidity, more transparency, cheaper and faster transactions, and more accessibility. Tokenization itself is quite difficult to regulate, and all tokenization assets have to be compliant with the law, something that issuers struggle to achieve.
Conclusion
While traditional cryptocurrencies are not necessarily backed by anything physical, they still hold a lot of value solely based on supply and demand. This is the case with numerous other assets and even fiat money.
Cryptocurrencies have come a long way and there is a wide variety of them. Stablecoins are the most popular when it comes to asset-backed cryptocurrencies. They serve as an alternative to fiat money and bring a lot of liquidity to the market. There are definitely concerns as people question their stability, however, they have become an important factor in the market.
Additionally, other projects aside from stablecoins have implemented asset-backed cryptocurrencies. There are numerous cryptocurrencies out there backed by precious metals, physical assets, stocks, and even other cryptocurrencies. We are definitely going to see even more in the near future as they bring a lot more security to investors and the crypto space in general.

SwapSpace team is always ready for discussion. You can drop an email with your suggestions and questions to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Join our social networks: Twitter, Medium, Facebook, Telegram The best rates on https://swapspace.co/
submitted by SwapSpace_co to CryptoTechnology [link] [comments]

How we just won WW3

How we just won WW3 🇺🇸
My theory:
My buddies in the armed forces have not been in touch with me especially during this lockdown supposedly. I found that strange during a peace time lock down and figured these guys would get a much needed break.
If you think our military is weak I will let you know we have technology and weapons that would make your hair stand up on the back of your neck.
Now let’s jump back to the 70’s where the ME is the worlds oil supplier and the OPEC cartel is running us in to the ground. We “befriend” them and by giving them lots of money. We actually gave them the first US mint press to every leave the treasury in history.
We slowly gained control with money over the oil, then we had to get worried about China coming back those commie f*cks along with the Russians. They were going to become huge problems with nukes and technology in the future.
Those countries been in the news lately? We printed money to infinity but we are the peg currency for the world. China has printed more money than any government including Zimbabwe at this point and they are going tits up.
Let me explain: if we made the paper US dollar illegal, just like we make gold illegal 100 years ago, that would mean tha the dollar that we have been printing is not worthless, it’s contraband.
The secret service tracks money. Remember those Blue Face Hunnids? Those are the easiest tracked currencies ever made. Bitcoin? Every illegal transaction has a time stamp and amount and that info is public. The NSA is recording every phone call in the world right now and the criminals, drug dealers, human traffickers, and terrorist networks can’t operate without cash and being connected. How do you think Mexican supply chains for drugs are doing right now? Do you think they are smart enough to not be tracked by the NSA.
My prediction: My special forces buddies haven’t spoken to me in months. They all have top secret security clearances so 99% of what they know that can’t tell me or anyone anyway. I think they are preparing to go in and end the evil that has ravaged America for so long.
The second paper currency is declared illegal navy seals will be visiting drug warehouses filled with cash and kill enemy combatants holding illegal treasury notes property of Uncle Sam. If you are a terrorist in another country a tomahawk missile will hit your f*cking forehead from 30,000 feet. Every drug dealer in America’s supply chain will go to prison. Money laundering laws are the strictest in US history.
Now, let’s get back to our new “friendly’ communists that killed 100 million people last century.
China and Russia are printing money fighting over oil and I just told you oil isn’t worth anything.
The MBS bond market is about to go up in smoke and will make 07 look like child’s play. Now we couldn’t give it all to our communist friends but we tried, sorry DB you’re idiots.
So China has bankrupted themselves following is the arrogant commies they are right off a cliff.
We know where every one of their citizens are in real time and know their face and identity. Now do you get why google was helping them spy on their own citizens? They let us build a commie tracking system and if someone says the CCP out loud they will be killed by us immediately. Forever.
We just won WW3 and no one even knows we were playing. Especially the Chinese and Russians. They are now the most over leveraged debt pools in the world.
How are we doing? We are buying up assets like gold, oil, private label bonds, with WORTHLESS paper and about to do the greatest magic show of all time to USDe. If you make a million in your brokerage you’re good! If you sell drugs, you’re going to a dark place for a long time or the lights are about to be shut off by the Chris Kyle’s of the world.
Why do you think JPM moved to a standard where you can only do a loan with chase if you are already a client? Because you need to have legal currency in the bank electronically.
Congrats guys, we now have surveillance on our commie enemies 24/7, 365 and they are bankrupt. They will sign on the line that is dotted or they will all die immediately. It took Japan a while to catch on to, but they surrendered when we needed two cities in 15 minutes. Because everyone since the British has surrendered to us and we don’t f*cking lose.
America’s weak? We just took out every evil organization and government in the world and they have NO clue. Now that’s some fucking monopoly.
It’s going to get worse before it gets better but know that we won and will be able to fix everything fucked very quickly....because our enemies are holding the bag.
USA USA USA 🇺🇸
submitted by MarginMiguel69 to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

Can Cryptocurrencies Truly Be Our Saviour when Economies are Crashing?

Can Cryptocurrencies Truly Be Our Saviour when Economies are Crashing?

https://preview.redd.it/gcwoelxrnlr41.png?width=1025&format=png&auto=webp&s=5d2a3ac18921209f4599eb89e08a8ec678b8e979
Cryptocurrencies & blockchain, the technology upon which cryptocurrency runs has been touted as truly revolutionary. After the first cryptocurrency went live in 2009, it sparked a light in dim time.
Necessitating an escape from the financial world controlled by the fraudulent and manipulative government and corporations. Bitcoin was seen as the saviour to the dying fiat currencies which has continually robbed people of their wealth through inflationary pressures aggravated by reckless government funds mismanagement.
As a tool for radical and transformative change, Bitcoin has grown from insignificance into global relevance today. But what is its position as of today?

The Idea & Industry

The cryptocurrency industry has grown considerably over the years. From a single cryptocurrency to thousands of crypto tokens or coins, each doing something of its own, although others bear similarities in their designs and functions.
The idea behind bitcoin and cryptocurrency generally was a rebellious idea. An idea that stems from the disgust of the maladministration of the fiat currency. This distrust resulted in the writing of the bitcoin white paper with its significant title “A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”.
An alternative financial system that doesn’t require the trust of a third party to enable the flow of economic events. Such a revolutionary idea. An idea which has turned into a global multibillion-dollar industry and growing still, at an impressive rate.

Alternative Tender

Crypto enthusiasts have always wanted to use their crypto to purchase daily goods, pay bills and do just about what the naira, dollar, euro, pounds, etc do. As much as they want to acquire that “Lambo”, they also would love to use their bitcoin to purchase their coffee, ice cream, etc.
Over the years with several firms developing great solutions, users are now able to purchase items using crypto but then, there exists a fundamental problem. Are they paying in crypto or fiat? This is a contestable argument.
If I send my bitcoin directly to the seller in exchange for a plate of tasty Nigerian jollof rice, am I paying with bitcoin or naira? For most, it’s understandable they are paying with bitcoin. But then, I am paying in naira. Reason being that the jollof rice is priced in Naira NGN. The difference here is WITH and IN. A matter of semantics.

Crypto Volatility

For most people who do not see cryptocurrency gaining global adoption as an effective means of economic exchange, their reason mostly stems from the volatile nature of this new asset class. The fear of receiving payment of 4500NGN for goods sold at 5000NGN in BTC has been a significant argument against why cryptocurrency will be used for economic exchange.
Although newer products have emerged that seek to remedy this issue by providing instant clearing for crypto transactions, crypto ‘faithfuls’ still hold on to the belief that volatility is a feature, not a bug.

Stablecoins

Stablecoins now provide a safe way of protecting oneself against volatility. Stablecoin facilitates crypto security as well as the non-volatile nature which fiat of sound economies carries. This presents stablecoins as a valid alternative to national fiat currencies. Currently, there are lots of activities ongoing for nations in a bid to develop their own Central Bank Digital Currency – CDBC.
In times of great national distress, the value of fiat currencies is normally shaken. This is normal and is why nations try as much as possible to prevent events that may destabilize their nations due to the correlative effects to their national currencies.

COVID-19

The current pandemic sweeping across the nations of the world is a true definition of distress. For Nigeria as a country with the majority of its revenue tied to crude oil, it faces serious economic challenges which have resulted in a reduction in the value of the naira.
The Central Bank of Nigeria a few weeks back via a circular, announced that the present fundamentals do not support the devaluation of the naira, however, there have been reports of commercial banks charging users above N400 per dollar.
While the purpose of this article is not to examine the naira and the several elements affecting it, this premise was necessary since it’s a fiat currency.
This begs the question “can cryptocurrency truly be our savior when economies are crashing?”
Nigeria is not the only nation currently affected by the Coronavirus pandemic. In fact, Nigeria is one of the countries with fewer cases though, this isn’t the only reason for the current position of the naira. Cryptocurrencies like bitcoin are notably volatile and in times of national or global crisis, people would argue they can’t hold value.
The next alternatives are usually Stablecoins, an innovation that is not even up to seven years since the very first stablecoin was introduced. But then this comes with a problem of its own. Since Stablecoins are pegged to their fiat currency counterparts, as the fiat currency of a nation goes down, the same goes for the stablecoin.
While it is understandable that not all nations will go to dust at the same time, people may move from one country’s fiat currency pegged stablecoin to another and this will just be an organized and consented pump.
The problem remains that cryptocurrency may not be the savior when the economies are crashing. The only way this can be is when the goods are priced in a standard unit of a coin, perhaps BTC.
Written By: Ben
Edited By: Mosun
Graphics By: Jacobite
submitted by Telos4africa to u/Telos4africa [link] [comments]

What are Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies Backed By?

Bitcoin was created back in 2009 and became the first cryptocurrency ever designed. Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular in the last few years as they offer an efficient and decentralized way of transferring money.
Cryptocurrencies have always been an alternative to banks and fiat money. But why do they have any value at all and who dictates what they are worth? The value of Bitcoin is really calculated through supply and demand. The digital asset itself is backed by nothing more than perhaps the blockchain ledger.
Every single cryptocurrency uses a blockchain ledger, a system that records transactions between two or more parties in a verifiable and permanent way. This certainly adds value to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. However, it is not what determines their price.
Why Things Have Value
Why does anything have any value at all? It has mostly because of supply and demand. Traditional currencies, for instance, are only backed by the government that issued them. Digital money, like Bitcoin, is not backed or linked to any physical reserves like gold and can certainly lose value due to different factors.
Cryptocurrencies have value because they require ‘work’ to exist. Cryptocurrencies are maintained thanks to the mining process, a process in which transactions are verified by different people. This process requires a certain amount of work, electricity, and money.
Key Factors That Affect The Value of Cryptocurrencies
Since most cryptocurrencies are not physically backed by anything, their value is determined through supply and demand based on a few important factors. One of the biggest advantages of cryptocurrencies is scarcity. The supply of most cryptocurrencies is fixed, and, unlike traditional currencies, no one can issue more than the maximum limit. This means that cryptocurrencies are deflationary by nature.
Another key factor that benefits cryptocurrencies is divisibility. Any cryptocurrency can be divided into smaller units. A simple change in Bitcoin’s code could allow the digital asset to be divided into infinitely smaller units at any time.
Additionally, transferring cryptocurrencies can be extremely fast and cheap compared to traditional methods. Fees are somewhat fixed no matter the amount you send, which means that theoretically you could send 1 million Bitcoins to someone and pay only a few dollars in fees (or even less).
In a way, one could say that Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are backed by the public’s faith in them as they have realized that the current monetary system is not as robust as one might think.
Why Are Cryptocurrencies so Volatile Then?
In comparison to traditional currencies and even stocks, cryptocurrencies are far more volatile, meaning that the current price of any given crypto can change drastically in hours. It’s quite common to see Bitcoin’s price go up or down 5-10% within a few days. In fact, even in periods of low volatility, most cryptocurrencies still experience price moves of up to 1-2%, which is considered extremely high in traditional markets.
The explanation, however, is quite simple. Cryptocurrencies, in general, lack the liquidity that the rest of the markets enjoy. According to statistics from Statista, the average daily turnover in the global foreign exchange market was around $6.5 trillion daily. The cryptocurrency market, on average, sees around $80 billion in daily trading volume, and according to various sources, a lot of the volume is actually fake.
The problem with illiquidity is that someone who wants to sell or buy a huge amount of Bitcoin or any cryptocurrency will simply ‘eat’ all the orders in the order book of the exchange, catapulting the price up or crashing it. That is the only reason why cryptocurrencies, in general, are extremely volatile.
Some Cryptocurrencies Are Actually Backed by Things
There are, however, some cryptocurrencies that are backed by gold, assets, and even fiat money. Tether (USDT) became the most popular cryptocurrency backed by fiat, later known as a ‘stablecoin’.
Stablecoins
A stablecoin is designed to always be worth $1.00 by maintaining 1 dollar in some sort of reserve. The first stablecoin to become widely popular was Tether, however, there was a lot of controversy surrounding it. Most of the criticism came from the fact that Tether Limited was unable to prove they actually have the funds to cover all the Tether issued.
Additionally, on 30 April 2019, Tether Limited’s lawyer actually admitted that each coin is only backed by $0.74 in cash.
Currently, there are over a dozen stablecoins that are backed by fiat, commodities, and even cryptocurrencies. TrueUSD is similar to Tether but it is considered to be one of the most reliable stablecoins currently as the company behind it has been extremely transparent and conducted an independent audit back in March 2019.
A more complex stablecoin is Dai, which is backed by Ethereum and pegged to the dollar. The system behind Dai basically locks Ethereum in a public contract. If the value of Dai distances too far from $1, the system will make use of the contract to stabilize it back. There is, however, a small problem: Dai is not entirely decentralized as the technology behind it is being monitored by the Maker Foundation.
DigixDAO is another stablecoin and it’s backed by bars of actual gold. It is an ERC-20 token created back in 2014. The digital asset is entirely decentralized and autonomous and can in fact be extended to be backed by other precious metals and even physical assets. According to the company, the gold is stored in custodial vaults at the Singapore Safe House, and 1 DGX will always equal 1 gram of gold.
Cryptocurrencies Backed by Assets
Not all cryptocurrencies backed by assets are stablecoins. For instance, the first oil-backed cryptocurrency was introduced by Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro back in 2017. El Petro, although highly criticized, is supposedly the first cryptocurrency to be backed by oil thanks to the country’s huge oil and mineral reserves.
Petro is, however, not pegged to anything, and its value can increase or decrease at any given time.
Tokenization of Assets
Something that has become quite popular over the last few years is the tokenization of traditional stocks and assets. There are countless blockchain startups tokenizing almost anything to represent ownership.
The tokenization of assets brings numerous benefits like greater liquidity, more transparency, cheaper and faster transactions, and more accessibility. Tokenization itself is quite difficult to regulate, and all tokenization assets have to be compliant with the law, something that issuers struggle to achieve.
Conclusion
While traditional cryptocurrencies are not necessarily backed by anything physical, they still hold a lot of value solely based on supply and demand. This is the case with numerous other assets and even fiat money.
Cryptocurrencies have come a long way and there is a wide variety of them. Stablecoins are the most popular when it comes to asset-backed cryptocurrencies. They serve as an alternative to fiat money and bring a lot of liquidity to the market. There are definitely concerns as people question their stability, however, they have become an important factor in the market.
Additionally, other projects aside from stablecoins have implemented asset-backed cryptocurrencies. There are numerous cryptocurrencies out there backed by precious metals, physical assets, stocks, and even other cryptocurrencies. We are definitely going to see even more in the near future as they bring a lot more security to investors and the crypto space in general.

SwapSpace team is always ready for discussion. You can drop an email with your suggestions and questions to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Join our social networks: Twitter, Medium, Facebook, Telegram The best rates on https://swapspace.co/
submitted by SwapSpace_co to CoinBase [link] [comments]

What are Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies Backed By?

Bitcoin was created back in 2009 and became the first cryptocurrency ever designed. Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular in the last few years as they offer an efficient and decentralized way of transferring money.
Cryptocurrencies have always been an alternative to banks and fiat money. But why do they have any value at all and who dictates what they are worth? The value of Bitcoin is really calculated through supply and demand. The digital asset itself is backed by nothing more than perhaps the blockchain ledger.
Every single cryptocurrency uses a blockchain ledger, a system that records transactions between two or more parties in a verifiable and permanent way. This certainly adds value to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. However, it is not what determines their price.
Why Things Have Value
Why does anything have any value at all? It has mostly because of supply and demand. Traditional currencies, for instance, are only backed by the government that issued them. Digital money, like Bitcoin, is not backed or linked to any physical reserves like gold and can certainly lose value due to different factors.
Cryptocurrencies have value because they require ‘work’ to exist. Cryptocurrencies are maintained thanks to the mining process, a process in which transactions are verified by different people. This process requires a certain amount of work, electricity, and money.
Key Factors That Affect The Value of Cryptocurrencies
Since most cryptocurrencies are not physically backed by anything, their value is determined through supply and demand based on a few important factors. One of the biggest advantages of cryptocurrencies is scarcity. The supply of most cryptocurrencies is fixed, and, unlike traditional currencies, no one can issue more than the maximum limit. This means that cryptocurrencies are deflationary by nature.
Another key factor that benefits cryptocurrencies is divisibility. Any cryptocurrency can be divided into smaller units. A simple change in Bitcoin’s code could allow the digital asset to be divided into infinitely smaller units at any time.
Additionally, transferring cryptocurrencies can be extremely fast and cheap compared to traditional methods. Fees are somewhat fixed no matter the amount you send, which means that theoretically you could send 1 million Bitcoins to someone and pay only a few dollars in fees (or even less).
In a way, one could say that Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are backed by the public’s faith in them as they have realized that the current monetary system is not as robust as one might think.
Why Are Cryptocurrencies so Volatile Then?
In comparison to traditional currencies and even stocks, cryptocurrencies are far more volatile, meaning that the current price of any given crypto can change drastically in hours. It’s quite common to see Bitcoin’s price go up or down 5-10% within a few days. In fact, even in periods of low volatility, most cryptocurrencies still experience price moves of up to 1-2%, which is considered extremely high in traditional markets.
The explanation, however, is quite simple. Cryptocurrencies, in general, lack the liquidity that the rest of the markets enjoy. According to statistics from Statista, the average daily turnover in the global foreign exchange market was around $6.5 trillion daily. The cryptocurrency market, on average, sees around $80 billion in daily trading volume, and according to various sources, a lot of the volume is actually fake.
The problem with illiquidity is that someone who wants to sell or buy a huge amount of Bitcoin or any cryptocurrency will simply ‘eat’ all the orders in the order book of the exchange, catapulting the price up or crashing it. That is the only reason why cryptocurrencies, in general, are extremely volatile.
Some Cryptocurrencies Are Actually Backed by Things
There are, however, some cryptocurrencies that are backed by gold, assets, and even fiat money. Tether (USDT) became the most popular cryptocurrency backed by fiat, later known as a ‘stablecoin’.
Stablecoins
A stablecoin is designed to always be worth $1.00 by maintaining 1 dollar in some sort of reserve. The first stablecoin to become widely popular was Tether, however, there was a lot of controversy surrounding it. Most of the criticism came from the fact that Tether Limited was unable to prove they actually have the funds to cover all the Tether issued.
Additionally, on 30 April 2019, Tether Limited’s lawyer actually admitted that each coin is only backed by $0.74 in cash.
Currently, there are over a dozen stablecoins that are backed by fiat, commodities, and even cryptocurrencies. TrueUSD is similar to Tether but it is considered to be one of the most reliable stablecoins currently as the company behind it has been extremely transparent and conducted an independent audit back in March 2019.
A more complex stablecoin is Dai, which is backed by Ethereum and pegged to the dollar. The system behind Dai basically locks Ethereum in a public contract. If the value of Dai distances too far from $1, the system will make use of the contract to stabilize it back. There is, however, a small problem: Dai is not entirely decentralized as the technology behind it is being monitored by the Maker Foundation.
DigixDAO is another stablecoin and it’s backed by bars of actual gold. It is an ERC-20 token created back in 2014. The digital asset is entirely decentralized and autonomous and can in fact be extended to be backed by other precious metals and even physical assets. According to the company, the gold is stored in custodial vaults at the Singapore Safe House, and 1 DGX will always equal 1 gram of gold.
Cryptocurrencies Backed by Assets
Not all cryptocurrencies backed by assets are stablecoins. For instance, the first oil-backed cryptocurrency was introduced by Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro back in 2017. El Petro, although highly criticized, is supposedly the first cryptocurrency to be backed by oil thanks to the country’s huge oil and mineral reserves.
Petro is, however, not pegged to anything, and its value can increase or decrease at any given time.
Tokenization of Assets
Something that has become quite popular over the last few years is the tokenization of traditional stocks and assets. There are countless blockchain startups tokenizing almost anything to represent ownership.
The tokenization of assets brings numerous benefits like greater liquidity, more transparency, cheaper and faster transactions, and more accessibility. Tokenization itself is quite difficult to regulate, and all tokenization assets have to be compliant with the law, something that issuers struggle to achieve.
Conclusion
While traditional cryptocurrencies are not necessarily backed by anything physical, they still hold a lot of value solely based on supply and demand. This is the case with numerous other assets and even fiat money.
Cryptocurrencies have come a long way and there is a wide variety of them. Stablecoins are the most popular when it comes to asset-backed cryptocurrencies. They serve as an alternative to fiat money and bring a lot of liquidity to the market. There are definitely concerns as people question their stability, however, they have become an important factor in the market.
Additionally, other projects aside from stablecoins have implemented asset-backed cryptocurrencies. There are numerous cryptocurrencies out there backed by precious metals, physical assets, stocks, and even other cryptocurrencies. We are definitely going to see even more in the near future as they bring a lot more security to investors and the crypto space in general.

SwapSpace team is always ready for discussion. You can drop an email with your suggestions and questions to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Join our social networks: Twitter, Medium, Facebook, Telegram The best rates on https://swapspace.co/
submitted by SwapSpace_co to CryptoCurrencyTrading [link] [comments]

What are Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies Backed By?

Bitcoin was created back in 2009 and became the first cryptocurrency ever designed. Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular in the last few years as they offer an efficient and decentralized way of transferring money.
Cryptocurrencies have always been an alternative to banks and fiat money. But why do they have any value at all and who dictates what they are worth? The value of Bitcoin is really calculated through supply and demand. The digital asset itself is backed by nothing more than perhaps the blockchain ledger.
Every single cryptocurrency uses a blockchain ledger, a system that records transactions between two or more parties in a verifiable and permanent way. This certainly adds value to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. However, it is not what determines their price.
Why Things Have Value
Why does anything have any value at all? It has mostly because of supply and demand. Traditional currencies, for instance, are only backed by the government that issued them. Digital money, like Bitcoin, is not backed or linked to any physical reserves like gold and can certainly lose value due to different factors.
Cryptocurrencies have value because they require ‘work’ to exist. Cryptocurrencies are maintained thanks to the mining process, a process in which transactions are verified by different people. This process requires a certain amount of work, electricity, and money.
Key Factors That Affect The Value of Cryptocurrencies
Since most cryptocurrencies are not physically backed by anything, their value is determined through supply and demand based on a few important factors. One of the biggest advantages of cryptocurrencies is scarcity. The supply of most cryptocurrencies is fixed, and, unlike traditional currencies, no one can issue more than the maximum limit. This means that cryptocurrencies are deflationary by nature.
Another key factor that benefits cryptocurrencies is divisibility. Any cryptocurrency can be divided into smaller units. A simple change in Bitcoin’s code could allow the digital asset to be divided into infinitely smaller units at any time.
Additionally, transferring cryptocurrencies can be extremely fast and cheap compared to traditional methods. Fees are somewhat fixed no matter the amount you send, which means that theoretically you could send 1 million Bitcoins to someone and pay only a few dollars in fees (or even less).
In a way, one could say that Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are backed by the public’s faith in them as they have realized that the current monetary system is not as robust as one might think.
Why Are Cryptocurrencies so Volatile Then?
In comparison to traditional currencies and even stocks, cryptocurrencies are far more volatile, meaning that the current price of any given crypto can change drastically in hours. It’s quite common to see Bitcoin’s price go up or down 5-10% within a few days. In fact, even in periods of low volatility, most cryptocurrencies still experience price moves of up to 1-2%, which is considered extremely high in traditional markets.
The explanation, however, is quite simple. Cryptocurrencies, in general, lack the liquidity that the rest of the markets enjoy. According to statistics from Statista, the average daily turnover in the global foreign exchange market was around $6.5 trillion daily. The cryptocurrency market, on average, sees around $80 billion in daily trading volume, and according to various sources, a lot of the volume is actually fake.
The problem with illiquidity is that someone who wants to sell or buy a huge amount of Bitcoin or any cryptocurrency will simply ‘eat’ all the orders in the order book of the exchange, catapulting the price up or crashing it. That is the only reason why cryptocurrencies, in general, are extremely volatile.
Some Cryptocurrencies Are Actually Backed by Things
There are, however, some cryptocurrencies that are backed by gold, assets, and even fiat money. Tether (USDT) became the most popular cryptocurrency backed by fiat, later known as a ‘stablecoin’.
Stablecoins
A stablecoin is designed to always be worth $1.00 by maintaining 1 dollar in some sort of reserve. The first stablecoin to become widely popular was Tether, however, there was a lot of controversy surrounding it. Most of the criticism came from the fact that Tether Limited was unable to prove they actually have the funds to cover all the Tether issued.
Additionally, on 30 April 2019, Tether Limited’s lawyer actually admitted that each coin is only backed by $0.74 in cash.
Currently, there are over a dozen stablecoins that are backed by fiat, commodities, and even cryptocurrencies. TrueUSD is similar to Tether but it is considered to be one of the most reliable stablecoins currently as the company behind it has been extremely transparent and conducted an independent audit back in March 2019.
A more complex stablecoin is Dai, which is backed by Ethereum and pegged to the dollar. The system behind Dai basically locks Ethereum in a public contract. If the value of Dai distances too far from $1, the system will make use of the contract to stabilize it back. There is, however, a small problem: Dai is not entirely decentralized as the technology behind it is being monitored by the Maker Foundation.
DigixDAO is another stablecoin and it’s backed by bars of actual gold. It is an ERC-20 token created back in 2014. The digital asset is entirely decentralized and autonomous and can in fact be extended to be backed by other precious metals and even physical assets. According to the company, the gold is stored in custodial vaults at the Singapore Safe House, and 1 DGX will always equal 1 gram of gold.
Cryptocurrencies Backed by Assets
Not all cryptocurrencies backed by assets are stablecoins. For instance, the first oil-backed cryptocurrency was introduced by Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro back in 2017. El Petro, although highly criticized, is supposedly the first cryptocurrency to be backed by oil thanks to the country’s huge oil and mineral reserves.
Petro is, however, not pegged to anything, and its value can increase or decrease at any given time.
Tokenization of Assets
Something that has become quite popular over the last few years is the tokenization of traditional stocks and assets. There are countless blockchain startups tokenizing almost anything to represent ownership.
The tokenization of assets brings numerous benefits like greater liquidity, more transparency, cheaper and faster transactions, and more accessibility. Tokenization itself is quite difficult to regulate, and all tokenization assets have to be compliant with the law, something that issuers struggle to achieve.
Conclusion
While traditional cryptocurrencies are not necessarily backed by anything physical, they still hold a lot of value solely based on supply and demand. This is the case with numerous other assets and even fiat money.
Cryptocurrencies have come a long way and there is a wide variety of them. Stablecoins are the most popular when it comes to asset-backed cryptocurrencies. They serve as an alternative to fiat money and bring a lot of liquidity to the market. There are definitely concerns as people question their stability, however, they have become an important factor in the market.
Additionally, other projects aside from stablecoins have implemented asset-backed cryptocurrencies. There are numerous cryptocurrencies out there backed by precious metals, physical assets, stocks, and even other cryptocurrencies. We are definitely going to see even more in the near future as they bring a lot more security to investors and the crypto space in general.

SwapSpace team is always ready for discussion. You can drop an email with your suggestions and questions to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Join our social networks: Twitter, Medium, Facebook, Telegram The best rates on https://swapspace.co/
submitted by SwapSpace_co to CryptoMarkets [link] [comments]

What are Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies Backed By?

Bitcoin was created back in 2009 and became the first cryptocurrency ever designed. Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular in the last few years as they offer an efficient and decentralized way of transferring money.
Cryptocurrencies have always been an alternative to banks and fiat money. But why do they have any value at all and who dictates what they are worth? The value of Bitcoin is really calculated through supply and demand. The digital asset itself is backed by nothing more than perhaps the blockchain ledger.
Every single cryptocurrency uses a blockchain ledger, a system that records transactions between two or more parties in a verifiable and permanent way. This certainly adds value to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. However, it is not what determines their price.
Why Things Have Value
Why does anything have any value at all? It has mostly because of supply and demand. Traditional currencies, for instance, are only backed by the government that issued them. Digital money, like Bitcoin, is not backed or linked to any physical reserves like gold and can certainly lose value due to different factors.
Cryptocurrencies have value because they require ‘work’ to exist. Cryptocurrencies are maintained thanks to the mining process, a process in which transactions are verified by different people. This process requires a certain amount of work, electricity, and money.
Key Factors That Affect The Value of Cryptocurrencies
Since most cryptocurrencies are not physically backed by anything, their value is determined through supply and demand based on a few important factors. One of the biggest advantages of cryptocurrencies is scarcity. The supply of most cryptocurrencies is fixed, and, unlike traditional currencies, no one can issue more than the maximum limit. This means that cryptocurrencies are deflationary by nature.
Another key factor that benefits cryptocurrencies is divisibility. Any cryptocurrency can be divided into smaller units. A simple change in Bitcoin’s code could allow the digital asset to be divided into infinitely smaller units at any time.
Additionally, transferring cryptocurrencies can be extremely fast and cheap compared to traditional methods. Fees are somewhat fixed no matter the amount you send, which means that theoretically you could send 1 million Bitcoins to someone and pay only a few dollars in fees (or even less).
In a way, one could say that Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are backed by the public’s faith in them as they have realized that the current monetary system is not as robust as one might think.
Why Are Cryptocurrencies so Volatile Then?
In comparison to traditional currencies and even stocks, cryptocurrencies are far more volatile, meaning that the current price of any given crypto can change drastically in hours. It’s quite common to see Bitcoin’s price go up or down 5-10% within a few days. In fact, even in periods of low volatility, most cryptocurrencies still experience price moves of up to 1-2%, which is considered extremely high in traditional markets.
The explanation, however, is quite simple. Cryptocurrencies, in general, lack the liquidity that the rest of the markets enjoy. According to statistics from Statista, the average daily turnover in the global foreign exchange market was around $6.5 trillion daily. The cryptocurrency market, on average, sees around $80 billion in daily trading volume, and according to various sources, a lot of the volume is actually fake.
The problem with illiquidity is that someone who wants to sell or buy a huge amount of Bitcoin or any cryptocurrency will simply ‘eat’ all the orders in the order book of the exchange, catapulting the price up or crashing it. That is the only reason why cryptocurrencies, in general, are extremely volatile.
Some Cryptocurrencies Are Actually Backed by Things
There are, however, some cryptocurrencies that are backed by gold, assets, and even fiat money. Tether (USDT) became the most popular cryptocurrency backed by fiat, later known as a ‘stablecoin’.
Stablecoins
A stablecoin is designed to always be worth $1.00 by maintaining 1 dollar in some sort of reserve. The first stablecoin to become widely popular was Tether, however, there was a lot of controversy surrounding it. Most of the criticism came from the fact that Tether Limited was unable to prove they actually have the funds to cover all the Tether issued.
Additionally, on 30 April 2019, Tether Limited’s lawyer actually admitted that each coin is only backed by $0.74 in cash.
Currently, there are over a dozen stablecoins that are backed by fiat, commodities, and even cryptocurrencies. TrueUSD is similar to Tether but it is considered to be one of the most reliable stablecoins currently as the company behind it has been extremely transparent and conducted an independent audit back in March 2019.
A more complex stablecoin is Dai, which is backed by Ethereum and pegged to the dollar. The system behind Dai basically locks Ethereum in a public contract. If the value of Dai distances too far from $1, the system will make use of the contract to stabilize it back. There is, however, a small problem: Dai is not entirely decentralized as the technology behind it is being monitored by the Maker Foundation.
DigixDAO is another stablecoin and it’s backed by bars of actual gold. It is an ERC-20 token created back in 2014. The digital asset is entirely decentralized and autonomous and can in fact be extended to be backed by other precious metals and even physical assets. According to the company, the gold is stored in custodial vaults at the Singapore Safe House, and 1 DGX will always equal 1 gram of gold.
Cryptocurrencies Backed by Assets
Not all cryptocurrencies backed by assets are stablecoins. For instance, the first oil-backed cryptocurrency was introduced by Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro back in 2017. El Petro, although highly criticized, is supposedly the first cryptocurrency to be backed by oil thanks to the country’s huge oil and mineral reserves.
Petro is, however, not pegged to anything, and its value can increase or decrease at any given time.
Tokenization of Assets
Something that has become quite popular over the last few years is the tokenization of traditional stocks and assets. There are countless blockchain startups tokenizing almost anything to represent ownership.
The tokenization of assets brings numerous benefits like greater liquidity, more transparency, cheaper and faster transactions, and more accessibility. Tokenization itself is quite difficult to regulate, and all tokenization assets have to be compliant with the law, something that issuers struggle to achieve.
Conclusion
While traditional cryptocurrencies are not necessarily backed by anything physical, they still hold a lot of value solely based on supply and demand. This is the case with numerous other assets and even fiat money.
Cryptocurrencies have come a long way and there is a wide variety of them. Stablecoins are the most popular when it comes to asset-backed cryptocurrencies. They serve as an alternative to fiat money and bring a lot of liquidity to the market. There are definitely concerns as people question their stability, however, they have become an important factor in the market.
Additionally, other projects aside from stablecoins have implemented asset-backed cryptocurrencies. There are numerous cryptocurrencies out there backed by precious metals, physical assets, stocks, and even other cryptocurrencies. We are definitely going to see even more in the near future as they bring a lot more security to investors and the crypto space in general.

SwapSpace team is always ready for discussion. You can drop an email with your suggestions and questions to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Join our social networks: Twitter, Medium, Facebook, Telegram The best rates on https://swapspace.co/
submitted by SwapSpace_co to CoinTelegraph [link] [comments]

What are Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies Backed By?

Bitcoin was created back in 2009 and became the first cryptocurrency ever designed. Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular in the last few years as they offer an efficient and decentralized way of transferring money.
Cryptocurrencies have always been an alternative to banks and fiat money. But why do they have any value at all and who dictates what they are worth? The value of Bitcoin is really calculated through supply and demand. The digital asset itself is backed by nothing more than perhaps the blockchain ledger.
Every single cryptocurrency uses a blockchain ledger, a system that records transactions between two or more parties in a verifiable and permanent way. This certainly adds value to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. However, it is not what determines their price.

Why Things Have Value

Why does anything have any value at all? It has mostly because of supply and demand. Traditional currencies, for instance, are only backed by the government that issued them. Digital money, like Bitcoin, is not backed or linked to any physical reserves like gold and can certainly lose value due to different factors.
Cryptocurrencies have value because they require ‘work’ to exist. Cryptocurrencies are maintained thanks to the mining process, a process in which transactions are verified by different people. This process requires a certain amount of work, electricity, and money.

Key Factors That Affect The Value of Cryptocurrencies

Since most cryptocurrencies are not physically backed by anything, their value is determined through supply and demand based on a few important factors. One of the biggest advantages of cryptocurrencies is scarcity. The supply of most cryptocurrencies is fixed, and, unlike traditional currencies, no one can issue more than the maximum limit. This means that cryptocurrencies are deflationary by nature.
Another key factor that benefits cryptocurrencies is divisibility. Any cryptocurrency can be divided into smaller units. A simple change in Bitcoin’s code could allow the digital asset to be divided into infinitely smaller units at any time.
Additionally, transferring cryptocurrencies can be extremely fast and cheap compared to traditional methods. Fees are somewhat fixed no matter the amount you send, which means that theoretically you could send 1 million Bitcoins to someone and pay only a few dollars in fees (or even less).
In a way, one could say that Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are backed by the public’s faith in them as they have realized that the current monetary system is not as robust as one might think.

Why Are Cryptocurrencies so Volatile Then?

In comparison to traditional currencies and even stocks, cryptocurrencies are far more volatile, meaning that the current price of any given crypto can change drastically in hours. It’s quite common to see Bitcoin’s price go up or down 5-10% within a few days. In fact, even in periods of low volatility, most cryptocurrencies still experience price moves of up to 1-2%, which is considered extremely high in traditional markets.
The explanation, however, is quite simple. Cryptocurrencies, in general, lack the liquidity that the rest of the markets enjoy. According to statistics from Statista, the average daily turnover in the global foreign exchange market was around $6.5 trillion daily. The cryptocurrency market, on average, sees around $80 billion in daily trading volume, and according to various sources, a lot of the volume is actually fake.
The problem with illiquidity is that someone who wants to sell or buy a huge amount of Bitcoin or any cryptocurrency will simply ‘eat’ all the orders in the order book of the exchange, catapulting the price up or crashing it. That is the only reason why cryptocurrencies, in general, are extremely volatile.

Some Cryptocurrencies Are Actually Backed by Things

There are, however, some cryptocurrencies that are backed by gold, assets, and even fiat money. Tether (USDT) became the most popular cryptocurrency backed by fiat, later known as a ‘stablecoin’.

Stablecoins

A stablecoin is designed to always be worth $1.00 by maintaining 1 dollar in some sort of reserve. The first stablecoin to become widely popular was Tether, however, there was a lot of controversy surrounding it. Most of the criticism came from the fact that Tether Limited was unable to prove they actually have the funds to cover all the Tether issued.
Additionally, on 30 April 2019, Tether Limited’s lawyer actually admitted that each coin is only backed by $0.74 in cash.
Currently, there are over a dozen stablecoins that are backed by fiat, commodities, and even cryptocurrencies. TrueUSD is similar to Tether but it is considered to be one of the most reliable stablecoins currently as the company behind it has been extremely transparent and conducted an independent audit back in March 2019.
A more complex stablecoin is Dai, which is backed by Ethereum and pegged to the dollar. The system behind Dai basically locks Ethereum in a public contract. If the value of Dai distances too far from $1, the system will make use of the contract to stabilize it back. There is, however, a small problem: Dai is not entirely decentralized as the technology behind it is being monitored by the Maker Foundation.
DigixDAO is another stablecoin and it’s backed by bars of actual gold. It is an ERC-20 token created back in 2014. The digital asset is entirely decentralized and autonomous and can in fact be extended to be backed by other precious metals and even physical assets. According to the company, the gold is stored in custodial vaults at the Singapore Safe House, and 1 DGX will always equal 1 gram of gold.

Cryptocurrencies Backed by Assets

Not all cryptocurrencies backed by assets are stablecoins. For instance, the first oil-backed cryptocurrency was introduced by Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro back in 2017. El Petro, although highly criticized, is supposedly the first cryptocurrency to be backed by oil thanks to the country’s huge oil and mineral reserves.
Petro is, however, not pegged to anything, and its value can increase or decrease at any given time.

Tokenization of Assets

Something that has become quite popular over the last few years is the tokenization of traditional stocks and assets. There are countless blockchain startups tokenizing almost anything to represent ownership.
The tokenization of assets brings numerous benefits like greater liquidity, more transparency, cheaper and faster transactions, and more accessibility. Tokenization itself is quite difficult to regulate, and all tokenization assets have to be compliant with the law, something that issuers struggle to achieve.

Conclusion

While traditional cryptocurrencies are not necessarily backed by anything physical, they still hold a lot of value solely based on supply and demand. This is the case with numerous other assets and even fiat money.
Cryptocurrencies have come a long way and there is a wide variety of them. Stablecoins are the most popular when it comes to asset-backed cryptocurrencies. They serve as an alternative to fiat money and bring a lot of liquidity to the market. There are definitely concerns as people question their stability, however, they have become an important factor in the market.
Additionally, other projects aside from stablecoins have implemented asset-backed cryptocurrencies. There are numerous cryptocurrencies out there backed by precious metals, physical assets, stocks, and even other cryptocurrencies. We are definitely going to see even more in the near future as they bring a lot more security to investors and the crypto space in general.

SwapSpace team is always ready for discussion. You can drop an email with your suggestions and questions to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Join our social networks: Twitter, Medium, Facebook The best rates on https://swapspace.co/
submitted by SwapSpace_co to SwapSpace [link] [comments]

What Is USDQ and Q DAO? Complete Guide from PLATINUM ENGINEERING

What Is USDQ and Q DAO? Complete Guide from PLATINUM ENGINEERING
Mihaill Kudryashev, a Front-end engineer at PLATINUM ENGINEERING, wrote this article while seeking to raise awareness about USDQ, a stablecoin his team is helping to develop. Among the biggest benefits, USDQ brings full decentralization and predictive capabilities. Soon there will be even more fully backed stable coins: JPYQ, KRWQ, SGDQ, HKDQ, CNYQ, RUBQ under Q DAO governance. Slowly learning more about blockchains, Mihail has been effective in transforming vague ideas into effective front-end solutions with strong UI/UX. Within his team, he’s helped many crypto startups to make their voice heard throughout the emerging global crypto community. In this article, Mihail looks into the key benefits that users win from using USDQ.
USDQ brings stability, with no need to engage legacy finance
How do USDQ and Q DAO coins work within the ecosystem?
USDQ is decentralized stablecoin, which uses algorithms to offer higher stability and reliability. It's backed by Bitcoin (another top 10 cryptocurrencies will be added in future). The elegant system places all transactions on the blockchain and empower users to execute cross-border and disintermediated transactions at any time and from any place. It's pegged to the value of USD, i.e. 1 USDQ always equals 1 USD. The ecosystem's design borrows heavily from fractional banking systems. In the nutshell, USDQ is a customer-facing stablecoin and Q DAO is an internal "operational" coin; together they help create a stabilized safe haven for anybody who's looking to hedge against rampant volatility of crypto markets.
Introduction to Q DAO and USDQ
There's a number of factors that prevent mass adoption of cryptocurrencies. The biggest factor among this is high volatility, seen in crypto. Bitcoin, the oldest and most popular coin, has been fluctuating with prices oscillating between 20,000 and 3,500 in just one year of 2018. No potential adopters, be it merchants or individuals, would be happy with suffering huge losses that such drastic changes can entail. And it's this high volatility that USDQ is set to address, bringing stability and convenience.
Tether (USDT) is probably the most well-known and widely used stablecoin. However, it has been embroiled in various controversies from the very start with no end to these in sight. Although the system is supposed to assure the 1-to-1 fiat reserves for all Tether units created, the website content has been recently changed to say that the issuer views not only cash in the bank, but also various loans to other companies, as the reserves. Both regulators and crypto enthusiasts have voiced concerns, which might bode ill for Tether in the months to come.
USDQ works differently. Here, the stablecoin is pegged to US Dollar and backed by Bitcoin (+top 10 other cryptocurrencies in future). It's similar to lending operations and fractional banking systems. Overcollateralization is used to mitigate potential unexpected changes in assets prices. The USDQ ecosystem is highly transparent as all of the operations are recorded on the immutable Ethereum blockchain, open to review by anybody and at any time. The smart contracts bring automation to business processes and eliminate the need for middlemen to assure trust and prevent abuse.
In order to determine how viable USDQ will be in the future, we need to discuss the two tokens used within the ecosystem.
Review of Q DAO and USDQ
Q DAO is governance token, entitles holders to participate in voting for new decisions. Importantly, holders are interested seeing Q DAO's prices growing and thus they are incentivized to thoroughly review proposals and deliver the best decisions. In this way, Q DAO imbues higher democracy and decentralization, on which many current crypto projects lag.
In addition, all the fees, charged for the system use, can be paid only in Q DAO.
In order to create USDQ, a user needs to transfer Bitcoins into a Collateralized Debt Contract (CDC). This will automatically trigger the smart contract to generate USDQ and send it to the user. In order to change USDQ back into crypto assets, users need to pay back the amount of USDQ they input and the fees, chargeable in Q DAO Tokens. Whenever this is done, USDQ is automatically destroyed and the Collateralized Debt Сontract is closed.
In addition by getting USDQ directly at the company's website, users can trade in USDQ on secondary markets. It's as easy as trading Bitcoin or Ethereum or any other coin.
Traders can store both coins in their wallets, assuring higher security. The stability and ease of use for USDQ open up wide ranges of adoption for both businesses and end consumers alike.
What makes USDQ stand apart
The main difference between projects like Tether and USDQ is complete transparency and openness in the inner workings of USDQ. All the data is easily accessible on the blockchain and there are no rumors or controversies as to the reserves held by the team, potential conflicts of interest or hidden agendas.
The CDС mechanics ensure that it's impossible to create fake units of USDQ, as smart contract can be activated only after an amount in Bitcoins is input. The development is being done completely transparent. Interested parties can review the smart contract, presented on the website. The audits and peer reviews were carried out to assure the highest quality of smart contract. The website-based scanner enables to track all the data about each and every transaction, including time, amount and collateral size.
In addition, should a "black swan" event occur, i.e. a drastic fall in Bitcoin prices, Q DAO is sold on secondary markets. Bitcoin value is liquidated to make a USDQ buyback procedure, which prevents any losses on the part of the system's users.
Additionally, PLATINUM BLOCKCHAIN ENGINEERING which is helping to develop the ecosystem is working hard to build up long-term partnerships with stakeholders in the crypto industry. The more liaisons the team wins, the better outlook for USDQ will be.
Why do we need stablecoins anyway?
Different assets produce varying levels of volatility in prices, when compared to each other. For instance, the purchasing capacity of US dollar has reduced over time with 1 USD from 1913 equaling 24 USD today (2019). This happens due to inflation 3-10% per year. In comparison, Bitcoin almost tripled in value in 2018 and then fell down by as much. Thus, fiat currencies are more stable, when compared to cryptocurrencies.
Stablecoins don't attempt to fight inflation. Instead, coins like Tether and USDQ peg themselves to US dollar, bringing relatively higher stability to crypto trading communities. One of the most famous transactions with Bitcoin is when a pizza was bought with Bitcoin back in 2010. At that time, the pizza ended up costing just a couple of bucks, but today it costs millions. Although stablecoins continue to be impacted by inflation and exchange rates that come to them from fiats they peg themselves to, they are nowhere near the mindboggingly high volatility of crypto assets.
One of the major use cases for stablecoins like USDQ is concluding long-term contracts. For instance, when using a popular decentralized platform Augur, users can bet on the price of oil in 5-10 years. The problem is that you won't only have to account for future changes in oil prices, but also for prices in Ethereum or Bitcoin that you use to make the bet. USDQ solves this problem elegantly and without much trouble. Using it, users don't have to consider future changes in Bitcoin prices and they can concentrate on what they've come here for - betting on future events. And they don’t have to worry about technical details as it’s easy to purchase USDQ and use for trader’s purposes.
Betting industry is just one of the many use cases, where USDQ can bring benefits. It can be successfully used for any transactions done across borders and long-term financial contracts. Virtually, USDQ opens up new opportunities any time value is exchanged and volatility has a negative effect.
Bottom Line
USDQ has a high potential to democratise transactions between companies and individuals globally, bringing fast execution and low volatility. The "PLATINUM BLOCKCHAIN ENGINEERING" is working hard to enable and improve various features in order to help USDQ to take leading positions on crypto markets.
Here are the main ecosystem’s features:
The system uses two tokens (USDQ and Q DAO) in order to tackle volatility, while staying on the blockchain.
USDQ is always pegged to USD 1:1. In order to come into line with as many national exchanges as possible and enter other markets, the company will issue other tokens pegged to the national currencies. For example, there will be CNYQ (for Chinese Yuan), KRWQ (for South Korean Won), as well as JPYQ (for Japanese Yen) at the early stage.
USDQ brings higher decentralization, driving this important vector in the development of crypto industry.
Q DAO holders are interested in seeing the coin grow and succeed, thus they will work hard to review and pick the best proposals for the system to move forward.
Taking into account these beneficial features, there's no question that USDQ will become a viable alternative to other fiat-backed cryptocurrencies like TUSD, USDT, GUSD, USDC etc. Competing with other stablecoins, both already operating and just being developed, PLATINUM ENGINEERING will roll out the new features and underlying tech solutions that'll help propel the coin.
USDQ is decentralized stablecoin, which uses algorithms to offer higher stability and reliability. Fully on-chain and monitored by high-speed AI robots, ecosystem offers reliable defences against malicious acts and attacks. First run in line of fiat-pegs, USDQ is brought by PLATINUM ENGINEERING Team, looking to edge together innovative solutions in collateralization, using stabilizing mechanisms for high-endurance stablecoins. Soon there will be even more fully backed stable coins: JPYQ, KRWQ, SGDQ, HKDQ, CNYQ, RUBQ under USDQ brand. Fully anonymous, USDQ breaks limits out of this legacy world.
PLATINUM ENGINEERING values your opinion and welcomes you to continue the conversation on Telegram or Facebook, where the company’s development team is always ready to help you find solutions to pressing issues. Working on projects like USDQ, Michael has gained an invaluable suite of skills and insights, enabling to roll out high-usability UI/UX with tight deadlines and lack of clear expectations as to user behaviors. The team has successfully produced white-label wallets, stand-alone fundraising platforms, as well as integrated fundraising ecosystems. Any startup looking for a reliable partner to help execute a success-story will win from a free consultation with the PLATINUM ENGINEERING team about potential solutions to their needs and issues.
This overview may not be fully exhaustive and does not assess the viability of any project, nor its team legitimacy. Readers should conduct their own due diligence before using or investing in any of the listed Stablecoins. This article represents the author’s opinions only and should not be considered investment advice. All described functionality in the article is still under development, it can be changed/processed. Please follow the updates.
Get bounty qdao: bounty.qdao.io/ref/759-420-974
Coupon: 759-420-974
submitted by egorzhikharevegor to u/egorzhikharevegor [link] [comments]

Bruno's message

Focus everyone:
When Oyster boomed in December I wanted to go on a huge hiring spree. I was always very product focused but people only wanted to hear about marketing. Chris Bamber approached me along with Bill. Bill turned out to be an honest and hardworking guy (as CFO), but Chris did next to nothing. I paid each member of c-suite 1 million PRL each which was evaluated at half a million dollars each.
Chris bailed on us for the exponential hiring. Why was I so pushy about hiring? Because I knew Bitcoin and all of crypto was in a bubble. I sold a lot of my own PRL and PRL for the treasury but Bill preached hesitation instead.
Then ETH went from $1200 to $200. It became difficult to keep hiring people, my plan for a large robust team of developers was blocked. I spent downtime to start healing from trauma I was going through.
Then Bill told the group that we got accepted on Binance. That’s when the problems started. The price immediately started pumping from 4c to 26c. I warned Bill against insider trading, he didn’t care. So instead of him and his VC friends dumping on you, I dumped on him.
I advise all of you to get out of crypto. Go educate yourselves about what is happening with Tether. The entire crypto sphere is a giant Ponzi scheme. I warned all of you, multiple times, in private and public, and nobody listens. Ethereum is going back to $5, if you want to sell back to a greater fool then you will only find yourself to be that fool.
https://twitter.com/Bitfinexed/
https://reddit.com/buttcoin
What will now happen:
  1. Bill, you’re fired.
  2. I am going to program the protocol on my own, gradually. If someone wants to help me they can do so free of charge. No marketing, no nonsense.
  3. PRL will still be the valid token used by the protocol (no contract swap).
  4. I reject the Binance listing and I don’t want Kucoin to re-activate our listings.
  5. Focus on the storage peg, that is what brings value to the token, not your Ponzi-Shenanigans.
If you want to buy only to sell to a greater fool, then you are that greater fool. PRL and SHL are not to be listed on an exchange until they are actual functioning products. I will also consider revealing my identity over the next few days. I will be posting updates on development after I straighten out this situation.
I am now going to dump as many chat logs as I can to show what happened with Oyster.
UPDATE:
If you want to play greater-fool games with Bill and co, and there is an overwhelming vote in support for Oyster becoming a permaponzi, then I will leave you all to have fun with it.
If you want PRL to operate as I've described in the whitepaper, everyone is fired and I will slowly but surely work on the protocol and post progress publicly. The last time I hired a bunch of people and threw money at them they turned it into a circus.
However, I don't believe there will be electricity running through the power grid soon. I sent this video and others like it a long time ago to this chat:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VOMWzjrRiBg
Go learn about peak oil and the fractional reserve banking system. The stock shale bubble is an obfuscated means to subsidize the price of oil. In Brazil, Indonesia, and other developing nations, the price of oil is subsidized with debt directly by the government. When the debt bubble pops, the price of oil will skyrocket, trucks won't be bringing produce into your city let alone computers won't be spending energy to secure the blockchain.
I believe in Oyster as a product, but I don't believe there will be a future to host it. I will program it since the program is a promise from me, but don't complain that Oyster isn't running when a banana costs $5,000.
Anyone here who has swiped a credit card or taken an interest-bearing loan has the blood of the incoming collapse on their hands. Billions of people will die, there are massive droughts and food shortages as we speak. I've made a lot of dollars by selling PRL, I immediatelly ditched the dollars to buy real things so that I can protect myself and my family from the collapse. That's all I ever wanted, and now that I have that secured, I will deliver the protocol which I promised myself. Give me some time to get my head straight after these dramatic few days, I will gradually post progress on github.
You can also buy popcorn futures on /buttcoin.
submitted by thehugeshort to Oyster [link] [comments]

An attempt to solve Venezuela’s Hyperinflation and economic crisis

“The bolivar has been hyperinflating since November 2016.”
“Both the government and the state-owned oil company are in default on dollar-denominated debts.”
“The economy has now been in deep recession for five years and there is no sign of recovery.”
What is Hyperinflation? (from Investopedia)
“Hyperinflation is a term to describe rapid, excessive, and out-of-control price increases in an economy.
Hyperinflation can occur in times of war and economic turmoil followed by a central bank printing an excessive amount of money.
Hyperinflation can cause a surge in prices for basic goods—such as food and fuel—as they become scarce.”
The prime example for hyperinflation that is used in almost every textbook on economics is the Great Depression which had a severe impact worldwide and took place mostly during the 1930s. But, we will come back to it later…
tl;dr: Venezuela’s economy is not doing very well and their currency is experiencing hyperinflation.
“Back in August [2018], President Maduro tried to end the hyperinflation. He devalued the bolivar by 95%, lopped five zeros off the face value of banknotes, and pegged the bolivar to the petro, the state-issued oil-backed cryptocurrency that he had created earlier in the year. The new-look bolivar is now known as the Sovereign Bolivar (VES).”
“Petro is a cryptocurrency whose price is set by government.” This means the government is just doing the same thing that they did with their fiat money – erasing zeros of the face value. But these measures did not work. Unless there is drastic monetary and fiscal reform, hyperinflation simply continues from the new base of the adjusted currency.
tl;dr: As countermeasures the government erased a couple of zeros on their money to make it worth more and created a cryptocurrency controlled by the government. But that did not stop Hyperinflation.
“Steve Hanke outlined two alternatives for monetary reform: one is to replace the bolivar with a hard currency such as the U.S. dollar, and the other is a currency board. In a strict currency board, the currency is pegged to a hard currency and backed 100% or more by reserves denominated in that hard currency, typically government bonds. Thus, all roads to sound money in Venezuela appear to lead to the U.S. dollar, though the Euro could be an alternative.”
“Unfortunately, neither dollarization nor a currency board are remotely acceptable to Maduro’s socialist government.” It would make no sense to give in to a foreign government and rely on their currency if a government wants to maintain economic sovereignty – especially if the country in question is not in favour of the current government.
Today, Venezuelans are adopting and experimenting with Bitcoin to evade hyperinflation and strict financial controls. But as much as I love Bitcoin it serves as a way to store value and is not efficient (too expensive because of its fees) when it comes to everyday transactions like buying milk – especially in a relatively poor country like Venezuela. Consequently, there is a need for a currency with low or no transaction cost that is still independent from the government.
So, as an alternative wouldn’t it make sense to have a currency board with a decentralized cryptocurrency (because a centralized CC like the petro could not prevent government intervention) that is backed by oil reserves and is pegged to the WTI oil price.
I understand that this would make Venezuela rely even more on oil and that the oil price is unpredictably volatile but it seems to be the best option.
tl;dr: The traditional monetary reforms necessary to combat hyperinflation would mean that Venezuela would have to rely on the US Dollar but they are not on good terms with the US. So, creating with a decentralized cryptocurrency that is backed by oil reserves and is pegged to the WTI oil price is the best choice.
Coming back to the Great Depression to spice up this think tank (which I hope this post will turn into; relating to the think tank btw and not a Great Depression… hopefully) even more.
There are many economic theories to combat (hyper-)inflation and an economic depression but they keep on happening. Granted, they might have been caused my economic mismanagement and not following these theories but I would like to bring up a practical example – The Wörgl Experiment.
The Wörgl Experiment was implemented as a countermeasure during the Great Depression by Michael Unterguggenberger a socialdemocratic major of a town in Austria. His political background should not be important but mentioning this might make it more appealing to be implemented in Venezuela. Anyway, the idea was to create a local “demurrage” currency based on the free-economic-theories of Silvio Gesell (a social reformer) that would lose value if it was not used in a certain timeframe. This should bring money into circulation and encourage people to spend their money, and by doing so, stimulate/help the economy. This was executed by paper money with boxes for every month on it that showed the price that It would have in a given month. Picture
To conclude, I have read a post about the BOMB Token a “Million Dollar Hyperdeflationary Currency” and altough I understand that the idea behind it is quite extreme and „the intention [that the BOMB-Token] is not to be used for day-to-day transactions“ it goes in my desired direction, which is:
tl;dr: To create a deflating decentralized cryptocurrency with a currency board that is backed by oil reserves and is pegged to the WTI oil price.
Its purpose would be to stop Hyperinflation and stimulate the economy in Venezuela (or wherever there is an economic depression and/or Hyperinflation). I might be dreaming here but if some crazy (in a good way and with the spirit of Michael Unterguggenberger) major from Venezuela (or whoever from wherever) reads this and implements it AND it actually works – that would be awesome. So, this is an idea I would like to resurface in whatever way possible because I cannot make a cryptocurrency, I have no pull in Venezuela, I do not even speak Spanish.

So please use this idea, take it apart, criticize it, improve it and do some good with it. :)

Quotes:
https://www.forbes.com/sites/francescoppola/2018/12/31/why-venezuelas-hyperinflation-problem-is-so-difficult-to-solve/
https://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/hyperinflation.asp
submitted by pathei_mathos7 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

A brief teardown of some of the flaws in the Lightning Network white paper

This post will perforce be quick and sloppy, because I have other things to do. But a recent comment provoked me to re-read the Lightning white paper to remind myself of the myriad flaws in it, so I decided to at least begin a debunking.
When I first read the Lightning white paper back in early 2016, the sheer audacity of the author's preposterous claims and their failure to understand basic principles of the Satoshi paper just offended the living shit out of me. I presumed - incorrectly - that the Lightning paper would be soon torn to shreds through peer review. However Core was successful in suppressing peer review of the paper, and instead inserted Lighting as their end-all be-all scaling plan for Bitcoin.
I'm sorry I didn't post this in 2016, but better later than never.
Let's start with the abstract.
The bitcoin protocol can encompass the global financial transaction volume in all electronic payment systems today, without a single custodial third party holding funds or requiring participants to have anything more than a computer using a broadband connection.
Well now, that's an awfully gigantic claim for someone that hasn't even written a single line of code as a proof of concept don't you think?
This is what's called "overpromising," the Nirvana fallacy, or more appropriately, "vaporware" - that is to say, a pie-in-the-sky software promise intended to derail progress on alternatives.
In the very first sentence, the authors claim that they can scale Bitcoin to support every transaction that ever happens, from micropayments to multibillion dollar transfers, with no custodial risk, on a simple computer with nothing more than broadband. It will be perfect.
Honestly everyone should have put the paper down at the first sentence, but let's go on.
A decentralized system is proposed
The authors claim that the system proposed is decentralized, but without even a single line of code (and indeed no solution to the problem they claim is the issue, more on that later) they have zero defense of this claim. In fact, the only known solution to the problem that Lightning cannot solve is centralized hubs. We'll get back to this.
whereby transactions are sent over a network of micropayment channels (a.k.a. payment channels or transaction channels) whose transfer of value occurs off-blockchain. If Bitcoin transactions can be signed with a new sighash type that addresses malleability, these transfers may occur between untrusted parties along the transfer route by contracts which, in the event of uncooperative or hostile participants, are enforceable via broadcast over the bitcoin blockchain in the event of uncooperative or hostile participants, through a series of decrementing timelocks
So right here in the abstract we have the promise: "support the entire world's transaction needs on a measly computer with just broadband, totally decentralized, and... (drum roll please) all that's missing is Segwit."
Yeah right. Let's continue.
First sentence of the paper itself reads:
The Bitcoin[1] blockchain holds great promise for distributed ledgers, but the blockchain as a payment platform, by itself, cannot cover the world’s commerce anytime in the near future.
So the authors have constructed a false problem they claim to solve: scaling Bitcoin to cover every transaction on Earth. Now, that would be neato if it worked (it doesn't) but really, this is like Amerigo Vespucci claiming that the problem with boats is that the sails aren't big enough to carry it to the moon. We aren't ready for that part yet. . In infotech we have a saying, "crawl, walk, run." Lightning's authors are going to ignore "walking" and go from crawling to lightspeed. Using the logic of this first sentence, Visa never should have rolled out its original paper-based credit cards, because "obviously they can't scale to solve the whole world's financial needs." Again, your bullshit detector should be lighting up.
Next sentence. So why can't Bitcoin cover all the world's financial transactions?
The blockchain is a gossip protocol whereby all state modifications to the ledger are broadcast to all participants. It is through this “gossip protocol” that consensus of the state, everyone’s balances, is agreed upon.
Got it. The problem is the "gossip protocol." That's bad because...
If each node in the bitcoin network must know about every single transaction that occurs globally, that may create a significant drag on the ability of the network to encompass all global financial transactions
OK. The problem with Bitcoin, according to the author, is that since every node must know the current state of the network, it won't scale. We'll get back to this bit later, because this is the crux: Lightning has the same problem, only worse.
Now the authors take a break in the discussion to create a false premise surrounding the Visa network:
The payment network Visa achieved 47,000 peak transactions per second (tps) on its network during the 2013 holidays[2], and currently averages hundreds of millions per day. Currently, Bitcoin supports less than 7 transactions per second with a 1 megabyte block limit. If we use an average of 300 bytes per bitcoin transaction and assumed unlimited block sizes, an equivalent capacity to peak Visa transaction volume of 47,000/tps would be nearly 8 gigabytes per Bitcoin block, every ten minutes on average. Continuously, that would be over 400 terabytes of data per year.
I'll just point out that Visa itself cannot sustain 47K tps continuously, as a reminder to everyone that the author is deliberately inflating numbers to make them seem more scary. Again, is your bullshit detector going off yet?
Now we get to the hard-sell:
Clearly, achieving Visa-like capacity on the Bitcoin network isn’t feasible today.
So the author deliberately inflates Visa's capabilities then uses that to say clearly it just can't be done. But really, Visa's actual steady-state load can be accomplished in roughly 500MB blocks - which actually is feasible, or nearly so, today. 500MB every ten minutes is actually a small load of data for a decent-sized business. There are thousands of companies that could quite easily support such a load. And that's setting aside the point that we took 7 years to get to 1MB, so it's unlikely that we'll need 500X that capacity "in the near future" or "today" as the authors keep asserting.
No home computer in the world can operate with that kind of bandwidth and storage.
whoopsie!!
Did he say, home computer??
Since when did ordinary Bitcoin users have to keep the whole blockchain on their home computers? Have the authors of the Lightning white paper ever read the Satoshi white paper, which explains that this is not the desired model in Section 8?
Clearly the Lightning authors are expecting their readers to be ignorant of the intended design of the Bitcoin network.
This is a classic example of inserting a statement that the reader is unlikely to challenge, which completely distorts the discussion. Almost nobody needs to run a fullnode on their home computer! Read the Satoshi paper!
If Bitcoin is to replace all electronic payments in the future, and not just Visa, it would result in outright collapse of the Bitcoin network
Really? Is that so?
Isn't the real question how fast will Bitcoin reach these levels of adoption?
Isn't the author simply making an assumption that adoption will outpace advances in hardware and software, based on using wildly inflated throughput numbers (47K tps) in the first place?
But no, the author makes an unfounded, unsupportable, incorrect blanket assertion that -- even in the future -- trying to scale up onchain will be the death of the entire system.
or at best, extreme centralization of Bitcoin nodes and miners to the only ones who could afford it.
Again, that depends on when this goes down.
If Bitcoin grows at roughly the rate of advancement in hardware and software, then the cost to . independently validate transactions - something no individual user needs to do in the first place - actually stays perfectly flat.
But the best part is that his statement:
centralization of Bitcoin nodes and miners to the only ones who could afford it
Ummm... mining and independent validation has always been limited to those who can afford it. What big-blockers know is that the trick isn't trying to make Bitcoin so tiny that farmers in sub-Saharan Africa can "validate" the blockchain on a $0.01 computer, but rather to expand adoption so greatly that they never have to independently validate it.
Running scalable validation nodes at home is dumb. But, there are already millions of people with synchronous gigabit internet at home and more than enough wealth to afford a beefy home computer. The problem is that none of them are using Bitcoin. Adoption is the key!
This centralization would then defeat aspects of network decentralization that make Bitcoin secure, as the ability for entities to validate the chain is what allows Bitcoin to ensure ledger accuracy and security
Here the author throws a red herring across the trail for gullible readers. It is not my ability to validate the chain that produces trustlessness. If that was the case, there would be no need for miners. Users would simply accept or not accept other people's transactions based on their software's interpretation of validity. The Satoshi paper makes it quite clear where trustlessness is born: it is in the incentives that enforce honest mining of an uncorrupted chain.
In other words, I don't have to validate the chain, but Poloniex does. And, newsflash, big companies can very easily afford big validation nodes. "$20K nodes" is a bullshit number I hear thrown around a lot. There are literally hundreds of thousands of companies that can easily afford $20K nodes in the event that Bitcoin becomes "bigger than Visa." Again, the trick is getting many companies in every jurisdiction in the world onto the blockchain. Then no individuals ever need to worry about censorship. Adoption!
let's continue. I'll skip a few sentences.
Extremely large blocks, for example in the above case of 8 gigabytes every 10 minutes on average, would imply that only a few parties would be able to do block validation
If this were written in 1997 it would have read
Extremely large blocks, for example in the above case of 8 megabytes every 10 minutes on average, would imply that only a few parties would be able to do block validation
Obviously, we are processing 8MB blocks today. The real question is how long before we get there. At current rates of adoption, we'll all be fucking dead before anyone mines an 8GB block. And remember, 8GB was the number the authors cooked up. Even Visa can't handle that load, today, continuously.
This creates a great possibility that entities will end up trusting centralized parties. Having privileged, trusted parties creates a social trap whereby the central party will not act in the interest of an individual (principalagent problem), e.g. rentierism by charging higher fees to mitigate the incentive to act dishonestly. In extreme cases, this manifests as individuals sending funds to centralized trusted custodians who have full custody of customers’ funds. Such arrangements, as are common today, create severe counterparty risk. A prerequisite to prevent that kind of centralization from occurring would require the ability for bitcoin to be validated by a single consumer-level computer on a home broadband connection.
Here the author (using his wildly inflated requirement of 8GB blocks) creates a cloud of fear, uncertainty, and doubt that "Bitcoin will fail if it succeeds" - and the solution is, as any UASFer will tell you, that everyone needs to validate the chain on a weak fullnode running on a cheap computer with average internet connectivity.
How's the bullshit detector going?
Now the authors make a head-fake in the direction of honesty:
While it is possible that Moore’s Law will continue indefinitely, and the computational capacity for nodes to cost-effectively compute multigigabyte blocks may exist in the future, it is not a certainty.
Certainty? No. But, we should point out, the capacity to actually approach Visa is already at hand and in the next ten years is a near certainty in fact.
But, surely, the solution that the authors propose is "around the corner" (- Luke-jr) ... /s . No, folks. Bigger blocks are the closest thing to "scaling certainty" that we have. More coming up....
To achieve much higher than 47,000 transactions per second using Bitcoin requires conducting transactions off the Bitcoin blockchain itself.
Now we get to the meat of the propaganda. To reach a number that Visa itself cannot sustain will "never" be possible on a blockchain. NEVER?? That's just false.
In fact, I'll go on record as saying that Bitcoin will hit Visa-like levels of throughput onchain before Lightning Network ever meets the specification announced in this white paper.
It would be even better if the bitcoin network supported a near-unlimited number of transactions per second with extremely low fees for micropayments.
Yes, and it would also be even better if we had fusion and jetpacks.
The thing is, these things that are promised as having been solved... have not been solved and no solution is in sight.
Many micropayments can be sent sequentially between two parties to enable any size of payments.
No, this is plain false. Once a channel's funds have been pushed to one side of the channel, no more micropayments in that direction can be made. This is called channel exhaustion and is one of the many unsolved problems of Lightning Network. But here the authors declare it as a solved problem. That's just false.
Micropayments would enable unbunding, less trust and commodification of services, such as payments for per-megabyte internet service. To be able to achieve these micropayment use cases, however, would require severely reducing the amount of transactions that end up being broadcast on the global Bitcoin blockchain
Now I'm confused. Is Lightning a solution for all the world's financial transactions or is it a solution for micropayments for things like pay-per-megabyte internet?
While it is possible to scale at a small level, it is absolutely not possible to handle a large amount of micropayments on the network or to encompass all global transactions.
There it is again, the promise that Lightning will "encompass all global transactions." Bullshit detector is now pegged in the red.
For bitcoin to succeed, it requires confidence that if it were to become extremely popular, its current advantages stemming from decentralization will continue to exist. In order for people today to believe that Bitcoin will work tomorrow, Bitcoin needs to resolve the issue of block size centralization effects; large blocks implicitly create trusted custodians and significantly higher fees. . (emphasis mine)
"Large" is a term of art which means "be afraid."
In 1997, 8MB would have been an unthinkably large block. Now we run them live in production without breaking a sweat.
"Large" is a number that changes over time. . By the time Bitcoin reaches "Visa-like levels of adoption" it's very likely that what we consider "large" today (32MB?) will seem absolutely puny.
As someone who first started programming on a computer that had what was at the time industry-leading 64KB of RAM (after expanding the memory with an extra 16K add-on card) and a pair of 144KB floppy disks, all I can tell you is that humans are profoundly bad at estimating compounding effects and the author of the Lightning paper is flat-out banking on this to sell his snake oil.
Now things are about to get really, really good.
A Network of Micropayment Channels Can Solve Scalability
“If a tree falls in the forest and no one is around to hear it, does it make a sound?”
Here's where the formal line by line breakdown will come to an end, because this is where the trap the Lightning authors have set will close on them.
Let's just read a bit further:
The above quote questions the relevance of unobserved events —if nobody hears the tree fall, whether it made a sound or not is of no consequence. Similarly, in the blockchain, if only two participants care about an everyday recurring transaction, it’s not necessary for all other nodes in the bitcoin network to know about that transaction
Here and elsewhere the author of the paper is implying that two parties can transact between them without having to announce the state of their channel to anyone else.
We see this trope repeated time and time again by LN shills. "Not everyone in the world needs to know about my coffee transaction" they say, as if programmed.
To see the obvious, glaring defect here requires an understanding of what Lightning Network purports to be able to do, one day, if it's ever finished.
Payment channels, which Lightning is based on, have been around since Satoshi and are nothing new at all. It is and has always been possible to create a payment channel with your coffee shop, put $50 in it, and pay it out over a period of time until it's depleted and the coffee shop owner closes the channel. That's not rocket science, that's original Bitcoin.
What Lightning purports to be able to do is to allow you to route a payment to someone else by using the funds in your coffee shop channel.
IN this model, lets suppose Alice is the customer and Bob is the shop. Let's also suppose that Charlie is a customer of Dave's coffee shop. Ernie is a customer of both Bob and Dave's shop.
Now, Alice would like to send money to Charlie. This could be accomplished by:
  1. Alice moves funds to Bob
  2. Bob moves funds to Ernie
  3. Ernie moves funds to Dave
  4. Dave moves funds to Charlie
or more simply, A-B-E-D-C
Here's the catch. To pull this off, Alice has to be able to find the route to Charlie. This means that B-C-E and D all have to be online. So first off, all parties to a transaction and in a route must be online and we must know their current online status to even begin the process. Again: to use Lightning as described in its white paper requires everyone to always be online. If we accept centralized routing hubs, then only the hubs need to be online, but Lightning proposed to be decentralized, which means, essentially, everyone needs to always be online.
Next, we need to know there are enough funds in all channels to perform the routing. Let's say Alice has $100 in her channel with Bob and wants to send this to Charlie. But Bob has only $5 in his channel with Ernie. sad trombone . The maximum that the route can support is $5. (Edit: not quite right, I cleaned this up here.)
Notice something?
Alice has to know the state of every channel through which she intends to route funds.
When the author claims
if only two participants care about an everyday recurring transaction, it’s not necessary for all other nodes in the bitcoin network to know about that transaction
That's true -- unless you want to use the Lightning Network to route funds - and routing funds is the whole point. Otherwise, Lightning is just another word for "payment channels." The whole magic that they promised was using micropayments to route money anywhere.
If you want to route funds, then you absolutely need to know the state of these channels. Which ones? That's the kicker - you essentially have to know all of them, to find the best route - and, sadly - it might be the case that no route is available - which requires an exhaustive search.
And in fact, here we are over 18 months since this paper was published, and guess what?
The problem of the "gossip protocol" - the very Achille's Heel of Bitcoin according to the author - has been solved with drum roll please --- the gossip protocol. (more info here)
Because, when you break it down, in order for Alice to find that route to Charlie, she has to know the complete, current state of Bob-Ernie, Ernie-Dave, and Charlie-Dave. IF the Lightning Network doesn't keep *every participant up to date with the latest network state, it can't find a route.
So the solution to the gossip protocol is in fact the gossip protocol. And - folks - this isn't news. Here's a post from ONE YEAR AGO explaining this very problem.
But wait. It gets worse....
Let's circle around to the beginning. The whole point of Lightning, in a nutshell, can be described as fixing "Bitcoin can't scale because every node needs to know every transaction."
It is true that every node needs to know every transaction.
However: because we read the Satoshi white paper we know that not every user needs to run a node to validate his transactions. End-users should use SPV, which do not need to be kept up to date on everyone else's transactions.
So, with onchain Bitcoin, you have something on the order of 10K "nodes" (validation nodes and miners) that must receive the "gossip" and the other million or so users just connect and disconnect when they need to transact.
This scales.
In contrast, with Lightning, every user needs to receive the "gossip."
This does not scale.
Note something else?
Lightning purports to be an excellent solution to "streaming micropayments." But such micropayments would result in literally millions or billions of continuous state-changes to the network. There's no way to "gossip" millions of micropayment streams each creating millions of tiny transactions.
Now, there is a way to make Lightning scale. It's called the "routing hub." In this model, end-users don't need to know the state of the network. Instead, they will form channels with trusted hubs who will perform the routing on their behalf. A simple example illustrates. IN our previous example, Alice wants to send money to Charlie, but has to find a route to him. An easy solution is to insert Frank. Frank holds 100K btc and can form bidirectional channels with Alice, Bob, Charlie, Dave, Ernie, and most everyone else too. By doing so, he places himself in the middle of a routing network, and then all payments come through Frank. Note that the only barrier to creating channels is capital. Lightning will scale, if we include highly-capitalized hubs as middlemen for everyone else to connect to. If the flaw here is not obvious then someone else can explain.
Well. As Mark Twain once quipped, "if I had more time I would have written a shorter letter." I'll stop here. Hopefully this goes at least part of the way towards helping the community understand just how toxic and deceptive this white paper was to the community.
Everyone on the Segwit chain has bet the entire future of Segwit-enabled Bitcoin on this unworkable house-of-cards sham.
The rest of us, well, we took evasive action, and are just waiting for the rest of the gullible, brainwashed masses to wake up to their error, if they ever do.
H/T: jonald_fyookball for provoking this
Edit: fixed wrong names in my A-B-C-D-E example; formatting
submitted by jessquit to btc [link] [comments]

What Is USDQ and Q DAO? Complete Guide from PLATINUM ENGINEERING

What Is USDQ and Q DAO? Complete Guide from PLATINUM ENGINEERING
Mihaill Kudryashev, a Front-end engineer at PLATINUM ENGINEERING, wrote this article while seeking to raise awareness about USDQ, a stablecoin his team is helping to develop. Among the biggest benefits, USDQ brings full decentralization and predictive capabilities. Soon there will be even more fully backed stable coins: JPYQ, KRWQ, SGDQ, HKDQ, CNYQ, RUBQ under Q DAO governance. Slowly learning more about blockchains, Mihail has been effective in transforming vague ideas into effective front-end solutions with strong UI/UX. Within his team, he’s helped many crypto startups to make their voice heard throughout the emerging global crypto community. In this article, Mihail looks into the key benefits that users win from using USDQ.
USDQ brings stability, with no need to engage legacy finance
How do USDQ and Q DAO coins work within the ecosystem?
USDQ is decentralized stablecoin, which uses algorithms to offer higher stability and reliability. It's backed by Bitcoin (another top 10 cryptocurrencies will be added in future). The elegant system places all transactions on the blockchain and empower users to execute cross-border and disintermediated transactions at any time and from any place. It's pegged to the value of USD, i.e. 1 USDQ always equals 1 USD. The ecosystem's design borrows heavily from fractional banking systems. In the nutshell, USDQ is a customer-facing stablecoin and Q DAO is an internal "operational" coin; together they help create a stabilized safe haven for anybody who's looking to hedge against rampant volatility of crypto markets.
Introduction to Q DAO and USDQ
There's a number of factors that prevent mass adoption of cryptocurrencies. The biggest factor among this is high volatility, seen in crypto. Bitcoin, the oldest and most popular coin, has been fluctuating with prices oscillating between 20,000 and 3,500 in just one year of 2018. No potential adopters, be it merchants or individuals, would be happy with suffering huge losses that such drastic changes can entail. And it's this high volatility that USDQ is set to address, bringing stability and convenience.
Tether (USDT) is probably the most well-known and widely used stablecoin. However, it has been embroiled in various controversies from the very start with no end to these in sight. Although the system is supposed to assure the 1-to-1 fiat reserves for all Tether units created, the website content has been recently changed to say that the issuer views not only cash in the bank, but also various loans to other companies, as the reserves. Both regulators and crypto enthusiasts have voiced concerns, which might bode ill for Tether in the months to come.
USDQ works differently. Here, the stablecoin is pegged to US Dollar and backed by Bitcoin (+top 10 other cryptocurrencies in future). It's similar to lending operations and fractional banking systems. Overcollateralization is used to mitigate potential unexpected changes in assets prices.
The USDQ ecosystem is highly transparent as all of the operations are recorded on the immutable Ethereum blockchain, open to review by anybody and at any time. The smart contracts bring automation to business processes and eliminate the need for middlemen to assure trust and prevent abuse.
In order to determine how viable USDQ will be in the future, we need to discuss the two tokens used within the ecosystem.
Review of Q DAO and USDQ
Q DAO is governance token, entitles holders to participate in voting for new decisions. Importantly, holders are interested seeing Q DAO's prices growing and thus they are incentivized to thoroughly review proposals and deliver the best decisions. In this way, Q DAO imbues higher democracy and decentralization, on which many current crypto projects lag.
In addition, all the fees, charged for the system use, can be paid only in Q DAO.
In order to create USDQ, a user needs to transfer Bitcoins into a Collateralized Debt Contract (CDC). This will automatically trigger the smart contract to generate USDQ and send it to the user. In order to change USDQ back into crypto assets, users need to pay back the amount of USDQ they input and the fees, chargeable in Q DAO Tokens. Whenever this is done, USDQ is automatically destroyed and the Collateralized Debt Сontract is closed.
In addition by getting USDQ directly at the company's website, users can trade in USDQ on secondary markets. It's as easy as trading Bitcoin or Ethereum or any other coin.
Traders can store both coins in their wallets, assuring higher security. The stability and ease of use for USDQ open up wide ranges of adoption for both businesses and end consumers alike.
What makes USDQ stand apart
The main difference between projects like Tether and USDQ is complete transparency and openness in the inner workings of USDQ. All the data is easily accessible on the blockchain and there are no rumors or controversies as to the reserves held by the team, potential conflicts of interest or hidden agendas.
The CDС mechanics ensure that it's impossible to create fake units of USDQ, as smart contract can be activated only after an amount in Bitcoins is input. The development is being done completely transparent. Interested parties can review the smart contract, presented on the website. The audits and peer reviews were carried out to assure the highest quality of smart contract. The website-based scanner enables to track all the data about each and every transaction, including time, amount and collateral size.
In addition, should a "black swan" event occur, i.e. a drastic fall in Bitcoin prices, Q DAO is sold on secondary markets. Bitcoin value is liquidated to make a USDQ buyback procedure, which prevents any losses on the part of the system's users.
Additionally, PLATINUM BLOCKCHAIN ENGINEERING which is helping to develop the ecosystem is working hard to build up long-term partnerships with stakeholders in the crypto industry. The more liaisons the team wins, the better outlook for USDQ will be.
Why do we need stablecoins anyway?
Different assets produce varying levels of volatility in prices, when compared to each other. For instance, the purchasing capacity of US dollar has reduced over time with 1 USD from 1913 equaling 24 USD today (2019). This happens due to inflation 3-10% per year.
In comparison, Bitcoin almost tripled in value in 2018 and then fell down by as much. Thus, fiat currencies are more stable, when compared to cryptocurrencies.
Stablecoins don't attempt to fight inflation. Instead, coins like Tether and USDQ peg themselves to US dollar, bringing relatively higher stability to crypto trading communities. One of the most famous transactions with Bitcoin is when a pizza was bought with Bitcoin back in 2010. At that time, the pizza ended up costing just a couple of bucks, but today it costs millions. Although stablecoins continue to be impacted by inflation and exchange rates that come to them from fiats they peg themselves to, they are nowhere near the mindboggingly high volatility of crypto assets.
One of the major use cases for stablecoins like USDQ is concluding long-term contracts. For instance, when using a popular decentralized platform Augur, users can bet on the price of oil in 5-10 years. The problem is that you won't only have to account for future changes in oil prices, but also for prices in Ethereum or Bitcoin that you use to make the bet. USDQ solves this problem elegantly and without much trouble. Using it, users don't have to consider future changes in Bitcoin prices and they can concentrate on what they've come here for - betting on future events. And they don’t have to worry about technical details as it’s easy to purchase USDQ and use for trader’s purposes.
Betting industry is just one of the many use cases, where USDQ can bring benefits. It can be successfully used for any transactions done across borders and long-term financial contracts. Virtually, USDQ opens up new opportunities any time value is exchanged and volatility has a negative effect.
Bottom Line
USDQ has a high potential to democratise transactions between companies and individuals globally, bringing fast execution and low volatility. The "PLATINUM BLOCKCHAIN ENGINEERING" is working hard to enable and improve various features in order to help USDQ to take leading positions on crypto markets.
Here are the main ecosystem’s features:
Taking into account these beneficial features, there's no question that USDQ will become a viable alternative to other fiat-backed cryptocurrencies like TUSD, USDT, GUSD, USDC etc. Competing with other stablecoins, both already operating and just being developed, PLATINUM ENGINEERING will roll out the new features and underlying tech solutions that'll help propel the coin.
USDQ is decentralized stablecoin, which uses algorithms to offer higher stability and reliability. Fully on-chain and monitored by high-speed AI robots, ecosystem offers reliable defences against malicious acts and attacks. First run in line of fiat-pegs, USDQ is brought by PLATINUM ENGINEERING Team, looking to edge together innovative solutions in collateralization, using stabilizing mechanisms for high-endurance stablecoins. Soon there will be even more fully backed stable coins: JPYQ, KRWQ, SGDQ, HKDQ, CNYQ, RUBQ under USDQ brand. Fully anonymous, USDQ breaks limits out of this legacy world.
PLATINUM ENGINEERING values your opinion and welcomes you to continue the conversation on Telegram or Facebook, where the company’s development team is always ready to help you find solutions to pressing issues. Working on projects like USDQ, Michael has gained an invaluable suite of skills and insights, enabling to roll out high-usability UI/UX with tight deadlines and lack of clear expectations as to user behaviors. The team has successfully produced white-label wallets, stand-alone fundraising platforms, as well as integrated fundraising ecosystems. Any startup looking for a reliable partner to help execute a success-story will win from a free consultation with the PLATINUM ENGINEERING team about potential solutions to their needs and issues.
This overview may not be fully exhaustive and does not assess the viability of any project, nor its team legitimacy. Readers should conduct their own due diligence before using or investing in any of the listed Stablecoins. This article represents the author’s opinions only and should not be considered investment advice. All described functionality in the article is still under development, it can be changed/processed. Please follow the updates.
submitted by sanacaks to ICOAnalysis [link] [comments]

What Is USDQ and Q DAO? Complete Guide from PLATINUM ENGINEERING

What Is USDQ and Q DAO? Complete Guide from PLATINUM ENGINEERING
Mihaill Kudryashev, a Front-end engineer at PLATINUM ENGINEERING, wrote this article while seeking to raise awareness about USDQ, a stablecoin his team is helping to develop. Among the biggest benefits, USDQ brings full decentralization and predictive capabilities. Soon there will be even more fully backed stable coins: JPYQ, KRWQ, SGDQ, HKDQ, CNYQ, RUBQ under Q DAO governance. Slowly learning more about blockchains, Mihail has been effective in transforming vague ideas into effective front-end solutions with strong UI/UX. Within his team, he’s helped many crypto startups to make their voice heard throughout the emerging global crypto community. In this article, Mihail looks into the key benefits that users win from using USDQ.
USDQ brings stability, with no need to engage legacy finance
How do USDQ and Q DAO coins work within the ecosystem?
USDQ is decentralized stablecoin, which uses algorithms to offer higher stability and reliability. It's backed by Bitcoin (another top 10 cryptocurrencies will be added in future). The elegant system places all transactions on the blockchain and empower users to execute cross-border and disintermediated transactions at any time and from any place. It's pegged to the value of USD, i.e. 1 USDQ always equals 1 USD. The ecosystem's design borrows heavily from fractional banking systems. In the nutshell, USDQ is a customer-facing stablecoin and Q DAO is an internal "operational" coin; together they help create a stabilized safe haven for anybody who's looking to hedge against rampant volatility of crypto markets.
Introduction to Q DAO and USDQ
There's a number of factors that prevent mass adoption of cryptocurrencies. The biggest factor among this is high volatility, seen in crypto. Bitcoin, the oldest and most popular coin, has been fluctuating with prices oscillating between 20,000 and 3,500 in just one year of 2018. No potential adopters, be it merchants or individuals, would be happy with suffering huge losses that such drastic changes can entail. And it's this high volatility that USDQ is set to address, bringing stability and convenience.
Tether (USDT) is probably the most well-known and widely used stablecoin. However, it has been embroiled in various controversies from the very start with no end to these in sight. Although the system is supposed to assure the 1-to-1 fiat reserves for all Tether units created, the website content has been recently changed to say that the issuer views not only cash in the bank, but also various loans to other companies, as the reserves. Both regulators and crypto enthusiasts have voiced concerns, which might bode ill for Tether in the months to come.
USDQ works differently. Here, the stablecoin is pegged to US Dollar and backed by Bitcoin (+top 10 other cryptocurrencies in future). It's similar to lending operations and fractional banking systems. Overcollateralization is used to mitigate potential unexpected changes in assets prices.
The USDQ ecosystem is highly transparent as all of the operations are recorded on the immutable Ethereum blockchain, open to review by anybody and at any time. The smart contracts bring automation to business processes and eliminate the need for middlemen to assure trust and prevent abuse.
In order to determine how viable USDQ will be in the future, we need to discuss the two tokens used within the ecosystem.
Review of Q DAO and USDQ
Q DAO is governance token, entitles holders to participate in voting for new decisions. Importantly, holders are interested seeing Q DAO's prices growing and thus they are incentivized to thoroughly review proposals and deliver the best decisions. In this way, Q DAO imbues higher democracy and decentralization, on which many current crypto projects lag.
In addition, all the fees, charged for the system use, can be paid only in Q DAO.
In order to create USDQ, a user needs to transfer Bitcoins into a Collateralized Debt Contract (CDC). This will automatically trigger the smart contract to generate USDQ and send it to the user. In order to change USDQ back into crypto assets, users need to pay back the amount of USDQ they input and the fees, chargeable in Q DAO Tokens. Whenever this is done, USDQ is automatically destroyed and the Collateralized Debt Сontract is closed.
In addition by getting USDQ directly at the company's website, users can trade in USDQ on secondary markets. It's as easy as trading Bitcoin or Ethereum or any other coin.
Traders can store both coins in their wallets, assuring higher security. The stability and ease of use for USDQ open up wide ranges of adoption for both businesses and end consumers alike.
What makes USDQ stand apart
The main difference between projects like Tether and USDQ is complete transparency and openness in the inner workings of USDQ. All the data is easily accessible on the blockchain and there are no rumors or controversies as to the reserves held by the team, potential conflicts of interest or hidden agendas.
The CDС mechanics ensure that it's impossible to create fake units of USDQ, as smart contract can be activated only after an amount in Bitcoins is input. The development is being done completely transparent. Interested parties can review the smart contract, presented on the website. The audits and peer reviews were carried out to assure the highest quality of smart contract. The website-based scanner enables to track all the data about each and every transaction, including time, amount and collateral size.
In addition, should a "black swan" event occur, i.e. a drastic fall in Bitcoin prices, Q DAO is sold on secondary markets. Bitcoin value is liquidated to make a USDQ buyback procedure, which prevents any losses on the part of the system's users.
Additionally, PLATINUM BLOCKCHAIN ENGINEERING which is helping to develop the ecosystem is working hard to build up long-term partnerships with stakeholders in the crypto industry. The more liaisons the team wins, the better outlook for USDQ will be.
Why do we need stablecoins anyway?
Different assets produce varying levels of volatility in prices, when compared to each other. For instance, the purchasing capacity of US dollar has reduced over time with 1 USD from 1913 equaling 24 USD today (2019). This happens due to inflation 3-10% per year.
In comparison, Bitcoin almost tripled in value in 2018 and then fell down by as much. Thus, fiat currencies are more stable, when compared to cryptocurrencies.
Stablecoins don't attempt to fight inflation. Instead, coins like Tether and USDQ peg themselves to US dollar, bringing relatively higher stability to crypto trading communities. One of the most famous transactions with Bitcoin is when a pizza was bought with Bitcoin back in 2010. At that time, the pizza ended up costing just a couple of bucks, but today it costs millions. Although stablecoins continue to be impacted by inflation and exchange rates that come to them from fiats they peg themselves to, they are nowhere near the mindboggingly high volatility of crypto assets.
One of the major use cases for stablecoins like USDQ is concluding long-term contracts. For instance, when using a popular decentralized platform Augur, users can bet on the price of oil in 5-10 years. The problem is that you won't only have to account for future changes in oil prices, but also for prices in Ethereum or Bitcoin that you use to make the bet. USDQ solves this problem elegantly and without much trouble. Using it, users don't have to consider future changes in Bitcoin prices and they can concentrate on what they've come here for - betting on future events. And they don’t have to worry about technical details as it’s easy to purchase USDQ and use for trader’s purposes.
Betting industry is just one of the many use cases, where USDQ can bring benefits. It can be successfully used for any transactions done across borders and long-term financial contracts. Virtually, USDQ opens up new opportunities any time value is exchanged and volatility has a negative effect.
Bottom Line
USDQ has a high potential to democratise transactions between companies and individuals globally, bringing fast execution and low volatility. The "PLATINUM BLOCKCHAIN ENGINEERING" is working hard to enable and improve various features in order to help USDQ to take leading positions on crypto markets.
Here are the main ecosystem’s features:
The system uses two tokens (USDQ and Q DAO) in order to tackle volatility, while staying on the blockchain.
USDQ is always pegged to USD 1:1. In order to come into line with as many national exchanges as possible and enter other markets, the company will issue other tokens pegged to the national currencies. For example, there will be CNYQ (for Chinese Yuan), KRWQ (for South Korean Won), as well as JPYQ (for Japanese Yen) at the early stage.
USDQ brings higher decentralization, driving this important vector in the development of crypto industry.
Q DAO holders are interested in seeing the coin grow and succeed, thus they will work hard to review and pick the best proposals for the system to move forward.
Taking into account these beneficial features, there's no question that USDQ will become a viable alternative to other fiat-backed cryptocurrencies like TUSD, USDT, GUSD, USDC etc. Competing with other stablecoins, both already operating and just being developed, PLATINUM ENGINEERING will roll out the new features and underlying tech solutions that'll help propel the coin.
USDQ is decentralized stablecoin, which uses algorithms to offer higher stability and reliability. Fully on-chain and monitored by high-speed AI robots, ecosystem offers reliable defences against malicious acts and attacks. First run in line of fiat-pegs, USDQ is brought by PLATINUM ENGINEERING Team, looking to edge together innovative solutions in collateralization, using stabilizing mechanisms for high-endurance stablecoins. Soon there will be even more fully backed stable coins: JPYQ, KRWQ, SGDQ, HKDQ, CNYQ, RUBQ under USDQ brand. Fully anonymous, USDQ breaks limits out of this legacy world.
PLATINUM ENGINEERING values your opinion and welcomes you to continue the conversation on Telegram or Facebook, where the company’s development team is always ready to help you find solutions to pressing issues. Working on projects like USDQ, Michael has gained an invaluable suite of skills and insights, enabling to roll out high-usability UI/UX with tight deadlines and lack of clear expectations as to user behaviors. The team has successfully produced white-label wallets, stand-alone fundraising platforms, as well as integrated fundraising ecosystems. Any startup looking for a reliable partner to help execute a success-story will win from a free consultation with the PLATINUM ENGINEERING team about potential solutions to their needs and issues.
This overview may not be fully exhaustive and does not assess the viability of any project, nor its team legitimacy. Readers should conduct their own due diligence before using or investing in any of the listed Stablecoins. This article represents the author’s opinions only and should not be considered investment advice. All described functionality in the article is still under development, it can be changed/processed. Please follow the updates.
submitted by aditya1933 to u/aditya1933 [link] [comments]

What Is USDQ and Q DAO? Complete Guide from PLATINUM ENGINEERING

What Is USDQ and Q DAO? Complete Guide from PLATINUM ENGINEERING
Mihaill Kudryashev, a Front-end engineer at PLATINUM ENGINEERING, wrote this article while seeking to raise awareness about USDQ, a stablecoin his team is helping to develop. Among the biggest benefits, USDQ brings full decentralization and predictive capabilities. Soon there will be even more fully backed stable coins: JPYQ, KRWQ, SGDQ, HKDQ, CNYQ, RUBQ under Q DAO governance. Slowly learning more about blockchains, Mihail has been effective in transforming vague ideas into effective front-end solutions with strong UI/UX. Within his team, he’s helped many crypto startups to make their voice heard throughout the emerging global crypto community. In this article, Mihail looks into the key benefits that users win from using USDQ.
USDQ brings stability, with no need to engage legacy finance
How do USDQ and Q DAO coins work within the ecosystem?
USDQ is decentralized stablecoin, which uses algorithms to offer higher stability and reliability. It's backed by Bitcoin (another top 10 cryptocurrencies will be added in future). The elegant system places all transactions on the blockchain and empower users to execute cross-border and disintermediated transactions at any time and from any place. It's pegged to the value of USD, i.e. 1 USDQ always equals 1 USD. The ecosystem's design borrows heavily from fractional banking systems. In the nutshell, USDQ is a customer-facing stablecoin and Q DAO is an internal "operational" coin; together they help create a stabilized safe haven for anybody who's looking to hedge against rampant volatility of crypto markets.
Introduction to Q DAO and USDQ
There's a number of factors that prevent mass adoption of cryptocurrencies. The biggest factor among this is high volatility, seen in crypto. Bitcoin, the oldest and most popular coin, has been fluctuating with prices oscillating between 20,000 and 3,500 in just one year of 2018. No potential adopters, be it merchants or individuals, would be happy with suffering huge losses that such drastic changes can entail. And it's this high volatility that USDQ is set to address, bringing stability and convenience.
Tether (USDT) is probably the most well-known and widely used stablecoin. However, it has been embroiled in various controversies from the very start with no end to these in sight. Although the system is supposed to assure the 1-to-1 fiat reserves for all Tether units created, the website content has been recently changed to say that the issuer views not only cash in the bank, but also various loans to other companies, as the reserves. Both regulators and crypto enthusiasts have voiced concerns, which might bode ill for Tether in the months to come.
USDQ works differently. Here, the stablecoin is pegged to US Dollar and backed by Bitcoin (+top 10 other cryptocurrencies in future). It's similar to lending operations and fractional banking systems. Overcollateralization is used to mitigate potential unexpected changes in assets prices.
The USDQ ecosystem is highly transparent as all of the operations are recorded on the immutable Ethereum blockchain, open to review by anybody and at any time. The smart contracts bring automation to business processes and eliminate the need for middlemen to assure trust and prevent abuse.
In order to determine how viable USDQ will be in the future, we need to discuss the two tokens used within the ecosystem.
Review of Q DAO and USDQ
Q DAO is governance token, entitles holders to participate in voting for new decisions. Importantly, holders are interested seeing Q DAO's prices growing and thus they are incentivized to thoroughly review proposals and deliver the best decisions. In this way, Q DAO imbues higher democracy and decentralization, on which many current crypto projects lag.
In addition, all the fees, charged for the system use, can be paid only in Q DAO.
In order to create USDQ, a user needs to transfer Bitcoins into a Collateralized Debt Contract (CDC). This will automatically trigger the smart contract to generate USDQ and send it to the user. In order to change USDQ back into crypto assets, users need to pay back the amount of USDQ they input and the fees, chargeable in Q DAO Tokens. Whenever this is done, USDQ is automatically destroyed and the Collateralized Debt Сontract is closed.
In addition by getting USDQ directly at the company's website, users can trade in USDQ on secondary markets. It's as easy as trading Bitcoin or Ethereum or any other coin.
Traders can store both coins in their wallets, assuring higher security. The stability and ease of use for USDQ open up wide ranges of adoption for both businesses and end consumers alike.
What makes USDQ stand apart
The main difference between projects like Tether and USDQ is complete transparency and openness in the inner workings of USDQ. All the data is easily accessible on the blockchain and there are no rumors or controversies as to the reserves held by the team, potential conflicts of interest or hidden agendas.
The CDС mechanics ensure that it's impossible to create fake units of USDQ, as smart contract can be activated only after an amount in Bitcoins is input. The development is being done completely transparent. Interested parties can review the smart contract, presented on the website. The audits and peer reviews were carried out to assure the highest quality of smart contract. The website-based scanner enables to track all the data about each and every transaction, including time, amount and collateral size.
In addition, should a "black swan" event occur, i.e. a drastic fall in Bitcoin prices, Q DAO is sold on secondary markets. Bitcoin value is liquidated to make a USDQ buyback procedure, which prevents any losses on the part of the system's users.
Additionally, PLATINUM BLOCKCHAIN ENGINEERING which is helping to develop the ecosystem is working hard to build up long-term partnerships with stakeholders in the crypto industry. The more liaisons the team wins, the better outlook for USDQ will be.
Why do we need stablecoins anyway?
Different assets produce varying levels of volatility in prices, when compared to each other. For instance, the purchasing capacity of US dollar has reduced over time with 1 USD from 1913 equaling 24 USD today (2019). This happens due to inflation 3-10% per year.
In comparison, Bitcoin almost tripled in value in 2018 and then fell down by as much. Thus, fiat currencies are more stable, when compared to cryptocurrencies.
Stablecoins don't attempt to fight inflation. Instead, coins like Tether and USDQ peg themselves to US dollar, bringing relatively higher stability to crypto trading communities. One of the most famous transactions with Bitcoin is when a pizza was bought with Bitcoin back in 2010. At that time, the pizza ended up costing just a couple of bucks, but today it costs millions. Although stablecoins continue to be impacted by inflation and exchange rates that come to them from fiats they peg themselves to, they are nowhere near the mindboggingly high volatility of crypto assets.
One of the major use cases for stablecoins like USDQ is concluding long-term contracts. For instance, when using a popular decentralized platform Augur, users can bet on the price of oil in 5-10 years. The problem is that you won't only have to account for future changes in oil prices, but also for prices in Ethereum or Bitcoin that you use to make the bet. USDQ solves this problem elegantly and without much trouble. Using it, users don't have to consider future changes in Bitcoin prices and they can concentrate on what they've come here for - betting on future events. And they don’t have to worry about technical details as it’s easy to purchase USDQ and use for trader’s purposes.
Betting industry is just one of the many use cases, where USDQ can bring benefits. It can be successfully used for any transactions done across borders and long-term financial contracts. Virtually, USDQ opens up new opportunities any time value is exchanged and volatility has a negative effect.
Bottom Line
USDQ has a high potential to democratise transactions between companies and individuals globally, bringing fast execution and low volatility. The "PLATINUM BLOCKCHAIN ENGINEERING" is working hard to enable and improve various features in order to help USDQ to take leading positions on crypto markets.
Here are the main ecosystem’s features:
Taking into account these beneficial features, there's no question that USDQ will become a viable alternative to other fiat-backed cryptocurrencies like TUSD, USDT, GUSD, USDC etc. Competing with other stablecoins, both already operating and just being developed, PLATINUM ENGINEERING will roll out the new features and underlying tech solutions that'll help propel the coin.
USDQ is decentralized stablecoin, which uses algorithms to offer higher stability and reliability. Fully on-chain and monitored by high-speed AI robots, ecosystem offers reliable defences against malicious acts and attacks. First run in line of fiat-pegs, USDQ is brought by PLATINUM ENGINEERING Team, looking to edge together innovative solutions in collateralization, using stabilizing mechanisms for high-endurance stablecoins. Soon there will be even more fully backed stable coins: JPYQ, KRWQ, SGDQ, HKDQ, CNYQ, RUBQ under USDQ brand. Fully anonymous, USDQ breaks limits out of this legacy world.
PLATINUM ENGINEERING values your opinion and welcomes you to continue the conversation on Telegram or Facebook, where the company’s development team is always ready to help you find solutions to pressing issues. Working on projects like USDQ, Michael has gained an invaluable suite of skills and insights, enabling to roll out high-usability UI/UX with tight deadlines and lack of clear expectations as to user behaviors. The team has successfully produced white-label wallets, stand-alone fundraising platforms, as well as integrated fundraising ecosystems. Any startup looking for a reliable partner to help execute a success-story will win from a free consultation with the PLATINUM ENGINEERING team about potential solutions to their needs and issues.
This overview may not be fully exhaustive and does not assess the viability of any project, nor its team legitimacy. Readers should conduct their own due diligence before using or investing in any of the listed Stablecoins. This article represents the author’s opinions only and should not be considered investment advice. All described functionality in the article is still under development, it can be changed/processed. Please follow the updates.
submitted by Cripnail to airdrops [link] [comments]

IMMERSION OIL Bitcoin Mining - MiningCave Bitcoin To Hit $91,000, USD Pegged Crypto And Coinbase Expands What is Wrapped Bitcoin wBTC? bitcoin market What is bitcoin and bitcoin mining ? what is cryptocurrency ? bitcoin price  In Hindi

Of course, Bitcoin is not pegged to oil or stocks but there is another crucial interlink between these assets – institutional investors who classify bitcoin as a risk asset. Oil has become a new barometer of global economic health. Trump’s latest threats against Iran and stimulus packages are indeed creating short-term speculative waves in the oil market, which are echoing in the stock ... Of course, Bitcoin is not pegged to oil or stocks but there is another crucial interlink between these assets - institutional investors who classify bitcoin as a risk asset. Oil has become a new ... Of course, Bitcoin is not pegged to oil or stocks but there is another crucial interlink between these assets – institutional investors who classify bitcoin as a risk asset. Oil has become a new ... 01/08/2020 Trending Bitcoin News and Market Sentiment, July 31st, 2020: Ethereum Turns 5 as ETH and DeFi Fly Together, Bitcoin New ATH; 31/07/2020 MoneyNext Summit Goes Virtual, Live Discussion Panel Starts August 18th, 2020; 30/07/2020 Wacken Open Air Evolves Into 3-Day Virtual Event for 2020 Of course, Bitcoin is not pegged to oil or stocks but there is another crucial interlink between these assets – institutional investors who classify bitcoin as a risk asset. Oil has become a new barometer of global economic health. Trump’s latest threats against Iran and stimulus packages are indeed creating short-term speculative waves in the oil market, which are echoing in the stock ...

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IMMERSION OIL Bitcoin Mining - MiningCave

DeLorean troubleshooting: DMM in resistance mode hanging from oil pressure (gauge) sensor after cold start, ambient temperature is ~75°F. Not sure if this is... Welcome to our YouTube channel !! MiningCave is worldwide distributor offering after sales service, technical support and repair center in Cryptocurrency Mining Hardware. Link for Immersion oil ... Start trading Bitcoin and cryptocurrency here: http://bit.ly/2Vptr2X Bitcoin is the first decentralized digital currency. All Bitcoin transactions are docume... Bitcoin miner gets some bitcoin as a reward for completing transaction. A bitcoin miner has to complete a lot of mathematical calculation through powerful computers to earn bitcoins. I will NOT be held liable for any of your personal trading or investing decisions or any losses/damages that you may incur if you decide to speculate in the market. This video/live stream is ...

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